Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

On Application of Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Experience for Selection of Water-Chemical Regime of the Innovative Reactor Plant VVER-SKD. Part 1.

9/25/2023 2023 - #03 Chemistry, physics and technology of reactor coolants

Yurchevsky Е.B. Yurin V.E. Kuznetsov V.М. Chusov I.A. Kavun О.Yu. Sharyi N.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2023.3.05

UDC: 621.039.58

The Energy Strategy of Russia for the period up to 2030, approved by the Russian Government Order No. 1715-r dated November 13, 2009, envisages “creation of a new generation of water-water power reactors with supercritical steam parameters and adjustable neutron spectrum”. Works in this direction are being carried out within the framework of a large international program GIF-4 (Generation-4 Internation Forum) by Russian institutes SIC KI, FEI, GP Design Bureau, AEP, as well as in the USA, France, Japan and other countries. At present, VVER, PWR and BWR water-water reactors are the backbone of the Russian and world nuclear power industry and account for about 96% of the reactor fleet in the world. The first Russian VVER power reactor was developed by OKB Gidropress and in 1964 became the basis for the main power unit of Novovoronezh NPP. The electrical capacity of the power unit was 210 MW, the pressure in the second circuit was 2.9 MPa, the coolant temperature after the core was 270°C, and the efficiency was 25.5%. The modern domestic VVER-TOI of generation 3+, also developed by OKB «Gidropress», provides electric capacity of 1255 MW (gross), pressure in the second circuit of 6.5 MPa, coolant temperature after the core of 328°C, and efficiency of 37.5%. Progress in comparison with the first VVERs is obvious, but in terms of the important efficiency indicator, modern nuclear power units based on VVERs are significantly inferior to fossil fuel power units. Modern coal-fired power plants, providing 40.3% of the world electricity production (in Russia – 13%) with application of super-supercritical steam parameters, for example, at the power unit at TPP Nideraussem (Germany) with the capacity of 1012 MW gross and 965 MW net, commissioned in 2002, have the efficiency of 45.2%, steam parameters – 27.5 MPa, 580/600°С. The share of gas in the world electricity production is about 24 % (in Russia about 47 %). The most advanced combined cycle plants have achieved efficiency up to 58 – 60% at the initial temperature of the working body of 1427°С. The necessity to increase the efficiency of nuclear power units with VVER is caused by competitive considerations, limited 235U resources.

In the first part of this paper, consisting of two parts, the following are discussed: the possibility of creating a new reactor power plant based on the VVER reactor with its conversion to supercritical parameters; the experience of using water-chemical regimes of direct-flow SCD boilers in thermal power engineering; water-chemical regimes of previously created single-circuit nuclear power plants; the possibility of using neutral uncorrected water regime for VVER-SCD.


  1. Electronic resource: https://ru.wikibrief.org/wiki/Niederaussem_Power_Station (accessed 20 May, 2023).
  2. Electronic resource: https://www.turbinist.ru/9199-parogazovaya-turbina-scc5-4000f-kompanii-siemens.html (accessed 20 May, 2023).
  3. Oka Y. Research and Development of the Supercritical pressure Light Water Cooled Reactors / Proc. of the 10-th Intern. Topical Meeting on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-10). – Seoul, Korea. – October 5–9. – 2003.
  4. Glebov A.P. Development of Nuclear Power Engineering in Russia and in the World with Reactors of Generation 3+ and 4. VANT. Series: Nuclear-Reactor Constants. 2020, iss. 1, pp. 77–93 (In Russian).
  5. Sakhipgareev A.R., Shlepkin A.S., Morozov A.V. Review of Modern Concept Designs of Power Reactors with Supercritical Water Coolant. VANT. Series: Nuclear-Reactor Constants. 2022, iss. 2, pp. 52-66 (In Russian).
  6. Water-chemical regimes and metal reliability of 500 and 800 MW power units. Edited by V.G. Doroshchuk, V.B. Rubin. М.: Energoatomizdat. 1981. 296 p. (In Russian).
  7. Margulova T.H., Martynova O.I. Water Regimes of Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants. М.: Vysshaya Shkola. 1987, 319 p. (In Russian).
  8. Zhimerin D.G. About results of implementation of NCWR on power units of ACS. Teploenergetika. 1985, no. 12, pp. 71-72 (In Russian).
  9. Kruzhilin G.N. Reactor for physical and technical research of RTF. In Proceedings of the 1st Geneva Conference. 1958, M.: Fizmatizdat, vol. 2, pp. 49-78 (In Russian).
  10. Zabelin A.I. Investigation of Water-Chemical Regimes of NPP VK-50. Preprint NIIAR-23(528). 1982, 32 p.
  11. Guestkov V.V., Markova T.V. Organization of water-chemical regimes at Smolensk NPP. Teploenergetika. 2008, no. 5, pp. 45–48 (in Russian).
  12. Konovalova O.T., Kosheleva T.I., Gerasimov V.V., Zhuravlev V.S., Shchapov G.A. Management of water and chemicals at nuclear power station with channel type reactor and nuclear steam superheat. Atomic Energy. 1971, vol. 30, iss. 2, pp. 183-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01139496
  13. Guidelines for Safety in the Use of Atomic Energy «Water and Chemical Regime of Nuclear Power Plants» (RB-002-16). М, 2016, 12 p.
  14. Makhin V.M., Piminov V.A., Semishkin V.P., Churkin A.N., Chusov I.A., Yurchevsky E.B., Lapin A.V. Use of Experience of Creation and Operation of Single-Circuit Reactors with Boiling and Nuclear Superheating of Coolant for Design of Reactors with Supercritical Coolant Parameters. VANT. Series: Physics of Nuclear Reactors. 2022, iss. 3, pp. 110-121 (in Russian).
  15. RD 34.37.401-85. Methodical instructions for chemical washing of the flowing part of supercritical pressure turbines. M., 1985 (in Russian).
  16. Akolzin P.A., Margulova T.H., Martynova O.I. Water regime of supercritical steam turbine units. (gen. edit. Yu.M. Kostrikin). М., Energia, 1972, 176 p. (in Russian).
  17. Larin B.M., Yurchevskiy E.B., Gostkov V.V., Larin A.B., Bushuev E.N. Water treatment at TPP and NPP. Ivanovo, ISPU, 2010, 347 p. ISBN 978-5-89482-690-5 (in Russian).

water-cooled power reactor supercritical parameters operational experience water-chemical regime neutral non-reactive water-chemical regime neutral oxygen water-chemical regime desalinated water

Link for citing the article: Yurchevsky Е.B., Yurin V.E., Kuznetsov V.М., Chusov I.A., Kavun О.Yu., Sharyi N.V. On Application of Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Experience for Selection of Water-Chemical Regime of the Innovative Reactor Plant VVER-SKD. Part 1.. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2023, no. 3, pp. 57-72; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2023.3.05 (in Russian).