Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

«Practical Elimination» Principle in the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant Design

9/25/2023 2023 - #03 Nuclear power plants

Lyubarskiy A.V. Tokmachev G.V. Kuzmina I.B.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2023.3.02

UDC: 621.039.586

The paper considers the implementation of the «practical elimination» principle in the design of the Akkuyu NPP with VVER-1200 reactors under construction in Turkey. The «practical elimination» principle is defined as follows: for emergency sequences or phenomena that contribute or lead to unacceptable radiological consequences for the public or the environment, it shall be shown with a high level of confidence that their occurrence is highly unlikely.

«Practical elimination» is proved predominantly by results of a Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment. The implementation of the «practical elimination» principle was considered at the level of accident sequences leading to a large radioactive release. It has been shown that each accident sequence leading to an unacceptable release has the probability of occurrence below 4.45Е–8 per reactor per year, while their total probability not exceeding the value of 6.17Е–7 per reactor per year. For the phenomena in the containment area during severe accidents, including hydrogen detonation, a large thermal explosion, direct containment heating, overpressure in the containment volume, and the containment damage at later stages due to the basement melting through, their «practical elimination» has been shown. The paper also considers specific hard_to_predict scenarios of beyond design basis accidents, for which the applicability of the «practical elimination» principle is assessed as well: a major positive reactivity insertion, a rupture of the reactor pressure vessel and other large-scale components, damage of fuel elements in the spent fuel pool, severe accidents with the containment bypass or containment failure, and severe accidents with the means for coping with their consequences being unavailable. Criteria have been developed and used for the «practical elimination» assessment. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken as part of the Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment which has shown that estimated values depend slightly on the analytical assumptions, as well as on the random change in the parameters that affect the progression of severe accidents.


  1. I. Kuzmina, D. Noskov, D. Simin, S. Afonin, K. Avdjiev, Y. Aleksyev. Insights on Application of Some Probabilistic Considerations for Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plants // RAOS Project OY, presented at International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety: Strengthening Safety of Evolutionary and Innovative Reactor Designs, 18–21 October 2022, Vienna, Austria.
  2. Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, INSAG Series No. 75-INSAG-3 (Rev. 1), INSAG-12. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency – 1999. Available at: https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1082r_web.pdf (accessed Jan. 1, 2023)
  3. Development and Application of Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-4.- Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency – 2010. Available at: https://www.iaea.org/publications/8236/development-and-application-of-level-2-probabilistic-safety-assessment-for-nuclear-power-plants (accessed Jan. 1, 2023)
  4. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1), – Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency – 2016. Available at: https://nucleus.iaea.org/sites/gsan/lib/Documents/Safety%20of%20Nuclear%20Power%20Plants%20Design%20(SSR-2-1)%20.pdf (accessed Jan. 1, 2023)
  5. IAEA Safety Glossary: Terminology Used in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, 2018 Edition. – Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency – 2018. Available at: https://www.iaea.org/publications/11098/iaea-safety-glossary-2018-edition (accessed Jan. 1, 2023)
  6. European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants (EUR). Volume1,2, Revision Е, – EUR Organisation – 2016. Available at: https://www.europeanutilityrequirements.eu/EURdocument/EURVolume1,2,4.aspx (accessed Jan. 1, 2023)
  7. NP-001-15. General provisions for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. Moscow: Rostekhnadzor of Russia, 2015. – 55 с. (in Russian)
  8. NP-040-02. Rules for ensuring hydrogen explosion protection at a nuclear power plant. – Moscow: Gosatomnadzor of Russia, 2002. – 6 p. (in Russian)
  9. NUREG-1150. Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants, Rep., – Washington, DC: United States Nuclear Regulatory Commision – 1990. Available at: https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1150/index.htm (accessed Jan. 1, 2023)

nuclear power plant design development safety «practical elimination» principle Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment

Link for citing the article: Lyubarskiy A.V., Tokmachev G.V., Kuzmina I.B. «Practical Elimination» Principle in the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant Design. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2023, no. 3, pp. 19-30; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2023.3.02 (in Russian).