Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants for the Period 1952 – 2012, Evaluated According to the International Scale of Nuclear Events INES
In the article, based on materials taken from open sources (the Internet, the Rosatom website ), a systematic and statistical analysis of emergency events that occurred at nuclear power plants (NPP) included in the INES international scale of nuclear events for the period 1952 – 2012 was carried out. The year of occurrence of accidents and incidents is indicated. The countries in which nuclear power plant emergencies occurred with the release of radioactivity were identified (USA, Japan, USSR, England, Russia, Germany, Spain, France, Canada, Switzerland, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Sweden, Czech Republic, Pakistan, India). The main objects of emergency situations related to radioactive emissions have been identified (reactor core, control system failure and automation failures, transformers and cable channels, reactor circuit and cooling systems, other accidents, steam generators and steam pipeline systems, pipeline systems, reactor vessels, pumps and pumping systems, technological channel). The causes of emergency events have been identified (due to the fault of personnel, due to technical malfunctions, due to short circuits, due to natural disasters (earthquakes), due to automation failures). The types of reactors where accidents and incidents occurred with radioactive emissions were noted (PWR, BWR, RBMK, VVER, PHWR, FBR, NRX, Windscale-1, SL-1, UNGG, VHTR, GCR, AGR, BN). Conclusions are drawn from the obtained results of statistical and system analysis. During the period from 1952 to 2012, 33 nuclear power plant accidents with radioactive emissions occurred in 17 countries. Most often, accidents and incidents with radioactivity emissions occurred in the following countries: the USA, Japan and the USSR. The two largest accidents of the seventh level on the INES scale were registered in the USSR and Japan. Safe operation of a nuclear power plant depends on the design and construction of the plant, as well as on compliance with special norms and rules of work of the plant personnel, which will ensure the protection of personnel and the public from the effects of radiation accidents.
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Link for citing the article: Titov S.A., Barbin N.M. Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants for the Period 1952 – 2012, Evaluated According to the International Scale of Nuclear Events INES. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2023, no. 1, pp. 96-107; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2023.1.08 (in Russian).