Identifying the Key Development Areas for Small Modular Reactors
In paper considered Small Modular Reactors (SMR) main advantages of design such as:
– possibility of significant enhance of nuclear power application by introducing in the fields where nuclear technologies are still not used, which is also possible thanks to ability of relocation in close proximity to consumer;
– diminish of cost and construction time due to high degree of industrial production and reducing construction works;
– diminish of cost and construction time due to abandonment of redundant safety systems, integral design application and possibility of decay heat removal directly from the vessel;
– diminish of cost and construction time due to abandonment of site management infrastructure of spent fuel and radioactive waste;
– possibility to meet consumer requirements and grid capacity more flexibly.
– possibility of easing IAEA nonproliferation guaranties demands due to procurement to consumer in «unassembled» form and transport to manufacturer for refueling;
– shorter term for the start of investment return due to phased introduction of energy modules, as well as reduced insurance payments;
– possibility to state-private partnership in construction due to lower investment amount;
– improving the reliability of power supply due to a lower risk of a complete shutdown of a multinodular power plant;
– lower decommissioning costs due to the possibility of taking the modules entirely to the manufacturer for final disposal.
In paper considered possible areas of SMR application, including consumer demands, which are as follows: power supply of remote (Arctic) territories, replacement (renovation) of old coal generation, production of high-potential heat and hydrogen for industrial consumers and other applications.
The necessity of development and implementation of a new technological platform for nuclear energy based on SMRs is shown in order to implement the global decarbonization of the world economy by means of significant expansion of nuclear energy technologies application. This technological platform should be developed in addition to the currently developing one based on the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors (solving the problem of fuel supply and waste disposal) and also developing technological platform of controlled thermonuclear fusion(solving the problem of global energy supply in the long term). The new technological platform should be created on the bases of broad international cooperation with creation of international consortiums. An experimental testing facility (research reactor)is proposed to be created for the development of captive hydrogen (heat)production technologies for industrial consumers as well as other technologies for the application of small modular reactors.
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