Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactors: History of Development and Prospects for Evolution. Part 2: Prospects for Evolution
The main provisions of the concept of a civilian reactor facility (SVBR-100) that meet the requirements for Generation IV nuclear technologies, which is being developed on the basis of a critically analyzed experience in the development and operation of RFs with lead-bismuth coolant (LBC), are presented. The current status of the project and the prospects for the use of such RFs in nuclear power (NP) after demonstrating their reliability and safety in the operating conditions of an experimental-industrial power unit (EIPU) are presented.
The characteristic features of this reactor facility are a high level of inherent self-protection, which deterministically excludes the causes of the most severe accidents requiring the evacuation of the population. This is due to the natural properties of LBC, a very high boiling temperature and chemical inertness in contact with water and air, which are possible in case of a breach of the tightness of the circuits.
The selected capacity of 100 MW(e) provides the possibility of transporting the reactor monoblock in factory readiness by various modes of transport, including by rail, which reduces the construction term. On the other hand, at a given power level (reactor dimensions), the core breeding ratio by using the MOX fuel can be higher than unity. At the same time, in a closed nuclear fuel cycle, the reactor will operate in the fuel self-supply mode, which will become important when the resources of cheap natural uranium are exhausted.
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Link for citing the article: Troyanov V.M., Toshinsky G.I., Stepanov V.S., Petrochenko V.V. Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactors: History of Development and Prospects for Evolution. Part 2: Prospects for Evolution. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2022, no. 1, pp. 5-21; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2022.1.01 (in Russian).