Phenomenology of Acoustic Standing Waves Applied to the VVER-1200 Reactor Plant
Underexplored issues of acoustic standing waves (ASW) in the main circulation circuits of the VVER reactor plants are considered. It is a long time that no proper attention has been given to this phenomenon both on the part of the research community and NPP experts. In the general case, generation of ASWs requires that the medium is acoustically heterogeneous in the planes perpendicular to the direction of the longitudinal wave propagation in which an acoustic impedance jump occurs, this having been shown by the authors based on an example of the wave equation solution (D’Alembert equation) for a certain function of two variables. An ASW classification has been developed based on the obtained experimental material, 6 ASW types have been described, and their key parameters have been defined. Amplitude distributions have been plotted for all major ASW types proceeding from the phase relations of signals from the pressure pulsation detectors and accelerometers installed on the MCC pipelines. These distributions are of a general nature and are valid for all VVER types. It is for the first time that the globality of all lowest ASW types have been identified. Four properties of ASWs have been formulated as their attributes. The first attribute is regular ASW temperature dependences, this being the source of diagnostic information in the process of the VVER unit heat-up/cooldown. Linear experimental dependences of the ASW frequencies on the coolant temperature have been obtained. Frequencies have been found experimentally which lead to the MCC resonant excitation due to the coalescence of the ASW frequencies with the RCP rotational frequency harmonics. The ASW energy, which owes its origin to the RCP operation, has been estimated. The RCP operation can be presented as continuous generation of pressure pulsations which fall onto the acoustic path heterogeneities in the form of a traveling wave and generate a standing wave after being reflected from these.
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