SNF Processing Electrochemical Operations: Liquid-Metal and Salt Medium Purification
The paper investigates the process of regeneration of a liquid metal medium used in the pyroelectrochemical reprocessing of spent mixed uranium-plutonium nitride fuel produced by a fast neutron reactor. The investigation concerns the interaction of liquid cadmium with sludge formed during the anodic dissolution of ceramic nitride pellets in a 3LiCl-2KCl melt medium as well as the possibility of its purification by filtration from individual metal fission products. Anode sludge is represented by fission products of the platinum group, zirconium, molybdenum and technetium. It was determined by scanning electron microscopy that the metal product is composed of several intergrowth phases. It was found that upon contact of a polymetallic alloy simulating anode sludge with a melt, the liquid metal phase is saturated to 0.025 wt% Pd, 0.01 wt% Rh for 50 hours at 500°C, while zirconium forms an insoluble dispersed intermetallic compound ZrCd3. Powders of molybdenum and technetium, which are not wetted with cadmium, can be completely removed using a filter mesh of plain weaving of the P-200 type; when the metal and salt phases are processed together, these metals are assimilated in the salt phase. It is also possible to remove zirconium from anodic cadmium by filtration. The filtration efficiency of ruthenium and palladium powders did not exceed 54.3 and 13.1 wt%, respectively, due to partial dissolution and thinning of particles, which will lead to saturation of the liquid metal phase and the need to purify it by alternative methods.
- Adamov E.O., Aleksahin R.M., Bol’shov L.A., Dedul’ A.V., Orlov V.V., Pershukov V.A., Rachkov V.I., Tolstouhov D.A., Troyanov V.M. The Breakthrough Project is a Technological Foundation for Large-Scale Nuclear Power. Izvestiya RAN. Energetika. 2015, no. 1. pp. 5-13 (in Russian).
- Aleksahin R.M., Spirin E.V., Solomatin V.M., Spiridonov S.I. Some Environmental Aspects of the Construction of a Pilot Demonstration Power Complex. Atomnaya Energiya. 2016, v. 120, no. 6, pp. 312-318; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10512-016-0146-3 (in Russian).
- Shadrin A.Yu., Dvoeglazov K.N., Maslennikov A.G., Kashheev V.A., Tret’yakova S.G., Shmidt O.V., Vidanov V.L., Ustinov O.A., Volk V.I., Veselov S.N., Ishunin V.S. PH-Process is a Technology for Reprocessing Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Fuel from the BREST-OD-300 Reactor. Radiokhimiya. 2016, v. 58, no. 3, pp. 234-241; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1066362216030085 (in Russian).
- Shadrin A.Yu., Dvoeglazov K.N., Ivanov V.B., Volk V.I., Shatalov V.V. Chemical and Technological Issues of Closing the Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. VANT. Ser. Materialovedeniye i Novye Materialy. 2014, no. 1 (76), pp. 69-80 (in Russian).
- Goff Michael. Electrochemical Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Proc. of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Seminar. Rockville, MD. March 25, 2008. Available at: http://shhshhshh.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/Goff_Electrochemicalposting.pdf (accessed Jun. 20, 2021).
- Tadafumi Koyama, Takatoshi Hijikata, Takeshi Jokoo and Tadashi Inoue. Development of engineering basis for industrialization of Pyrometallurgical reprocessing. Global 2007, Boise, Idaho, September 9;13, 2007, pp.1038-1043.
- Goff K.M., Wass J.C., Marsden K.C., Teske G.M. Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear Engineering And Technology. 2011, v. 43, no. 4, pp. 335-342; DOI: https://doi.org/10.5516/NET.2011.43.4.335 .
- Brunsvold A.R., Roach P.D., Westphal B.R. Design and Development of a Cathode Processor for Electrometallurgical Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Proc. of the ICONE 8: VIII;th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. April 2;6, 2000. Baltimore, MD USA, 2000, 13 p.
- Goff Michael. Electrochemical Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Idaho National Laboratory. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Seminar. Rockville, MD. March 25, 2008, 32 p.
- Lineberry M.J., Phipps R.D., McFarlane H.F. Status of IFR Fuel Cycle Demonstration. Argonne National Laboratory;West. – Aug. 30, 1993. OSTI, 10 p.
- Westphal Brian R. et al. On the Development of a Distillation Process for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of Irradiated Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear Engineering and Technology. 2008, v. 40, no. 3, pp.163-174; DOI: https://doi.org/10.5516/NET.2008.40.3.163. Available at: http://article.nuclear.or.kr/jknsfile/v40/JK0400163.pdf (accessed Jun. 20, 2021).
- Prototype Cathode Processor (PCP) Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne). Available at: http://www.ne.anl.gov/facilities/pcp/ (accessed Jun. 21, 2021).
- Westphal B.R., Price J.C., Vaden D. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery. J. Alloys Comp. 2007, v. 444, p. 561. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 USA; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.02.072 .
- Osipenko A.G., Nechaev P.I., Galiev R.S., Poglyad S.S. Experience in the Secondary Reduction of Actinides in the LiCl-Li2 O Melt. Proc. of the Conf. «Radiochemistry 2018» Moscow. Mezhvedomstvenny Nauchny Sovet po Radiokhimii pri Prezidiume RAN i Goskorporatsii «Rosatom» Publ., 2018, p. 309 (in Russian).
- Babashov V.G., Varrik N.M., Karaseva T.A. Porous Ceramics for Filtration of Molten Metals and Hot Gases (Review). Trudy VIAM. 2020, no. 8 (90), pp. 54-63; DOI: https://doi.org/10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-8-54-63 (in Russian).
- Sidorov V.V., Min P.G., Folomeykin Yu.I., Vadeev V.E. Influence of the Filtration Rate of a Complex-Alloyed Nickel Melt through a Ceramic Foam Filter on the Content of Sulfur Impurities in the Metal. Electrometallurgiya. 2015, no. 5, pp.12-15; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0036029515060142 (in Russian).
- Zhitkov A., Potapov A., Karimov K., Shishkin V., Dedyukhin A., Zaykov Yu. Interaction Between UN and CdCl2 in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic. I. Experiment at 773 K. Nuclear Engineering and Technology. 2020, v. 52, no. 1, pp. 123-134; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2019.07.006 (in Russian).
- Osipenko A.G. Obtaining Uranium (III) Chloride by Mild Chlorination in a Melt of Lithium and Potassium Chlorides. Scientific Report GNTs NIIAR JSC, 2016, ed. by V.V. Kalygin. Dimitrovgrad. NIIAR Publ., 2017, pp. 139-140 (in Russian).
- Potapov A.M., Karimov K.R., Shishkin V.Yu., Zajkov Yu.P. Interaction of UN + CdCl2 in the Medium of Molten Eutectic LiCsl-KCl. Experiment and Thermodynamic Modeling. Trudy Kol’skogo nauchnogo centra RAN. 2018, v. 9, no. 2-1, pp.431-434 (in Russian).
- Tananaev I.G., Rovny S.I., Myasoedov B.F. Technetium. (Yang Radiochemist Library). Ozersk. RITs VRB FGUP PO «Mayak» Publ., 2006, 82 p. (in Russian).
- GOST 3187;76. Wire Woven Filter Nets. Technical Conditions. Available at: https://rosstandart.msk.ru/gost/001.077.140.065/gost-3187-76/ (accessed Jun. 21, 2021) (in Russian).
- Reed S.J.B. Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2-nd ed., 2005, 216 p.; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610561 .
- Krishtal M.M., Yasnikov I.S., Polunin V.I., Filatov A.M., Uliyanenkov A.G. Scannin Electron Microscopy and X;ray Spectral Microanalysis in Examples of Practical Application. Moscow. Tekhnosphera Publ., 2009, 206 p. (in Russian)
- Koval’ A.A. Analysis of the Process of Vacuum Distillation of Metals. Vestnik Dimitrovgradskogo Inzhenerno;Tekhnologicheskogo Instituta. 2016, no. 3 (11), pp. 29-38 (in Russian).
- Volodin V.N., Khrapunov V.E., Burabaeva N.M., Ruzakhunova G.S., Marki I.A. Refining of Black-new Cadmium with Associated Extraction of Thallium. Tsvetnyye Metally. 2013, no. 1 (841), pp. 48-52 (in Russian).
- Tetsuya Kato et al. Distillation of Cadmium from Uranium-Plutonium-Cadmium Alloy. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 2005, v. 340, pp. 259-265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2004.12.002.
Link for citing the article: