Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Hybrid «Fusion-Fission» Reactor Facility: Neutronic Research

12/08/2021 2021 - #04 Physics and technology of nuclear reactors

Bedenko S.V. Lutsik I.O. Matyushin A.A. Polozkov S.D. Shmakov V.M. Modestov D.G. Prikhodko V.V. Arzhannikov A.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2021.4.03

UDC: 621.039.5

Global thermonuclear research is aimed at the commercial energy production after 2050. Scientists of Korean Institute of Fusion Energy (KFE) achieve 20 seconds plasma confinement in toroidal magnetic trap (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) at temperature of 100 million degrees which is currently an absolute record for the implemented set of parameters. The research result of scientists allows asserting that the international program for the ITER tokamak contruction will be completed and the energy production from plasma will exceed the energy costs for obtaining and retaining plasma.

Power generation stations using tokamaks will have an exceptionally large size and power, and will be build in the distant future. Our research is focused on prospect of practical using of nuclear fusion power at a shorter time. The purpose of our research is to creation a subcritical «fusion-fission» facility the concept of which is proposed and developed by the G.I. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS (Novosibirsk), Tomsk Polytechnic University and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIITF n.a. Academician E.I. Zababakhin (Snezhinsk).

The facility under study is a hybrid reactor. The reactor core (blanket) is consisted of the assembly of fuel blocks of a unified design of a high-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactor and an extended magnetic gas-dynamic trap penetrating the axial part of the reactor core (G.I. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk).

Such a hybrid nuclear fusion reactor has a convenient level of facility power for regional energy (~ 60 – 100 MWth), acceptable geometric dimensions and insignificant volume of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generation in comparison to most common reactors such as LWR.

In this paper we provide optimization neutron studies the purpose of which is to neutralize the offsets of the radial energy release field formed in the volume of the fuel part of the blanket due to prolonged operation time and pulsed work mode of the D-T-neutron plasma source.

The main goal of the study was to reduce blanket’s power peaking factor, that depends on time-dependent neutron flux distribution and periodic pulse mode operation parameters of the D-T fusion neutron source. Neutron transport simulations were done with Monte-Carlo code SERPENT 2.1.31. Evaluated point-wise nuclear data including S(α,β) thermal scattering data for graphite of ENDF-B/VII.0 library were used for simulation.


The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 19-29-02005.


  1. South Korea’s ‘Artificial Sun’ Just Set a New World Record For High-Temperature Plasma. Available at: https://www.sciencealert.com/south-korea-s-artificial-sun-just-set-a-new-world-record-for-high-temperature-plasma (accessed Aug. 11, 2021).
  2. Arzhannikov A., Bedenko S., Shmakov V., Knyshev, V., Lutsik I., Prikhodko V., Shamanin I. Gas-Cooled Thorium Reactor at Various Fuel Loadings and its Modification by a Plasma Source of Extra Neutrons. Nuclear Science and Techniques. 2019, v. 30, iss. 181; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41365-019-0707-y .
  3. Arzhannikov A.V., Shmakov V.M., Modestov D.G., et al. Facility to Study Neutronic Properties of a Hybrid Thorium Reactor with a Source of Thermonuclear Neutrons Based on a Magnetic Trap. Nuclear Engineeging and Technology. 2020, v. 52, no. 11, pp. 2460-2470; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2020.05.003 .
  4. Prikhodko V.V., Arzhannikov A.V. Simulations of Fusion Neutron Source Based on the Axially Symmetric Mirror Trap for the Thorium Hybrid Reactor. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020, v. 1647; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1647/1/012004 .
  5. Arzhannikov A.V. Shamanin I.V. Bedenko S.V. Prikhodko V.V. Sinitsky S.L. Shmakov V.M. Knyshev V.V. Lutsik I.O. Hybrid Thorium Energy Producing Subcritical Stand with a Fusion Neutron Source Based on a Magnetic Trap. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2019, no. 2, pp. 43-54; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe/2019.2.04 (in Russian).
  6. Yang W., Zeng Q., Chen C., Chen Z., Song J., Wang Z., Yu J., Yakovlev D., Prikhodko V. Shielding Design and Neutronics Calculation of the GDT Based Fusion Neutron Source ALIANCE. Fusion Engineering and Design. 2021, v. 164, 112221; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2020.112221 .
  7. Bedenko S.V., Ghal-Eh N., Lutsik I.O. and Shamanin I.V. A Fuel for Generation IV Nuclear Energy System: Isotopic Composition and Radiation Characteristics. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019, v. 147, pp. 189-196; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2019.03.005 .
  8. Bedenko Sergey, Karengin Alexander, Ghal-Eh Nima, Alekseev Nikita, Knyshev Vladimir, Shamanin Igor Thermo-Physical Properties of Dispersion Nuclear Fuel for a New-Generation Reactors: A Computational Approach. AIP Conference Proceedings. 2019, v. 2101, no. 1; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5099594 .
  9. Shamanin I.V., Bedenko S.V., Chertkov Yu.B., et al. Gas-Cooled Thorium Reactor with Fuel Block of the Unified Design. Izvestiya Wysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2015, no., 3, pp. 124-134; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2015.3.13 (in Russian).
  10. Gas-Dynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences. Available at: http://inp.nsk.su (accessed Aug. 11, 2021) (in Russian).
  11. Beklemishev A., Anikeev A., Astrelin V., Bagryansky P., Burdakov A., Davydenko V., Gavrilenko D., Ivanov A., Ivanov I., Ivantsivsky M., Kandaurov I., Polosatkin S., Postupaev V., Sinitsky S., Shoshin A., Timofeev I., & Tsidulko Y. Novosibirsk Project of Gas-Dynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap. Fusion Science and Technology. 2013, v. 63, pp. 46-51; DOI: https://doi.org/10.13182/FST13-A16872.
  12. Anikeev A.V., Bagryansky P.A., Beklemishev A.D., Ivanov A.A., Korobeinikova O.A., Kovalenko Yu.V., Lizunov A.A., Maximov V.V., Murakhtin S.V., Pinzhenin E.I., Prikhodko V.V., Savkin V.Ya., Soldatkina E. I., Solomakhin A.L., Yakovlev D. V., Zaytsev K. V. The GDT Experiment: Status and Recent Progress in Plasma Parameters. Fusion Science and Technology. 2015, v. 68, no 1, pp. 1-7;. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13182/FST14-867 .
  13. Leppaanen J., Pusa M., Viitanen T., Valtavirta V., Kaltiaisenaho T. The SERPENT Monte Carlo code: Status, development and applications in 2013. Annals of Nuclear Energy. 2015, v. 82, pp. 142-150; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2014.08.024 .
  14. Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Descriptions. Nuclear Energy Agency. Available at: https://oecd-nea.org/dbdata/data/nds_eval_libs.htm (accessed Aug. 11, 2021).
  15. SERPENT 1.1.0 Thermal Scattering Libraries based on JEF-2.2, JEFF3.1, ENDF/B-VI.8 and ENDF/B-VII. Available at: http://montecarlo.vtt.fi/download/SSS_THERMAL.pdf (accessed Aug. 11, 2021).
  16. Linnik S.A., Gaydachuk A.V., Shamanin I.V. Glow Discharge Plasma Source with Hollow Cathode Effect for Surface Modification and Coating Application. Izvestiya Tomskogo Politehnicheskogo Universiteta. Inzhiniring Georesursov. 2011, v. 318, pp. 86-88 (in Russian).
  17. Shamanin I.V., Chertkov Y.B., Bedenko S.V., Mendoza O., Knyshev V.V., Grachev V.M. Neutronic Properties of High_Temperature Gas_Cooled Reactors with Thorium Fuel. Annals of Nuclear Energy. 2018, v. 113, pp. 286-293; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2017.11.045 .

hybrid «fusion-fission» reactor facility plasma generator of D-T-neutrons neutronic research