Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactors: History and the Potential of Development Part 1: History of Development

12/08/2021 2021 - #04 Current issues in nuclear energy

Troyanov V.M. Toshinsky G.I. Stepanov V.S. Petrochenko V.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2021.4.01

UDC: 621.039.52.034.6.

The history of the development of reactor facilities (RF) with lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) for nuclear submarines (NPS) carried out in the absence of the necessary knowledge and experience in the conditions of imposed strict prescriptive deadlines for the completion of works, which practically excluded the possibility of implementation of comprehensive accompanying scientific research, is discussed. The above situation resulted during the stage of mastering this unique in the world technology in numerous failures the reasons for which were later identified and eliminated. Substantiations are given for the choice of the lead-bismuth eutectic alloy as the reactor coolant, the main scientific and technical problems solved in the course of mastering the RFs with LBC, including the problems of coolant technology and corrosion resistance of steels, issues of ensuring radiation safety during works accompanied with the release of polonium, ensuring the reliability of steam generators, incidents and accidents that took place during the operation and ways to eliminate their causes are described.

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lead-bismuth coolant reactor steam generator polonium accident corrosion operating experience reactor core