Generation of Hydrogen by Hydroheterogenic Compositions based on Aluminum and Alkaline Metals
The process of hydrogen formation and the associated risk of combustion and explosion is a complex problem in the hydrogen and radiation safety of nuclear reactors. Lithium, potassium and sodium hydroxides are used in VVER reactors as corrective additives to maintain the pH of the aqueous coolant with boric acid at a controlled level of 5.8 – 10.3 by removing the passivating layer of aluminum oxide Al2O3 from the surface. In this process, the most reactive are lithium hydroxides, the reactions of which with the formation of hydrogen proceed at a high rate at room temperature (in an exothermic mode). The processes of hydrogen generation in hydroheterogeneous compositions with potassium and sodium hydroxides proceed at an acceptable rate when heated to ~ 60 °C. The kinetics of hydrogen generation depends in a complex way on the boric acid content, namely, at a low concentration of 0.01 – 0.05 g/l, the yield of hydrogen is at a level of ~ 1000 ml, and at a concentration of 0.6 g/l, no hydrogen is formed. According to the quality standards of the coolant in the hot state of a VVER-1000 power unit or in the reactor state at the minimum controlled power level, the total concentration of alkali metals is about 1 mg/ dm3, i.e. two to three orders of magnitude less than in the compositions we have studied. The discovery of the influence of alkali metal hydroxides on the formation of hydrogen with the participation of structural materials using the example of aluminum suggests that the hydroxides of these metals present in a coolant in a small amount can also take part in the hydroheterogeneous process of the formation of small amounts of hydrogen. The possibility of generating hydrogen along this path must be taken into account in the long-term operation of nuclear reactors, accidents and incidents at nuclear power plants.
- GOST 24693-81. Nuclear Power Vessel Reactors with Pressurized Water. General Requirements for Boron Control System. Intr. 1982-07-01. Moscow. Publishing House of Standards, 1981, 5 p. (in Russian).
- Technical Justification. Changes and Additions to the Standard on Water-Chemical Regime of the Primary Circuit of Power Units of NPPs with VVER-1000 (with consideration of remarks of the Federal Technical Supervision Service) on the subject: Revision of the Standard STP EO 0004 – 00 «Water7Chemical Regime of the Primary Circuit of Power Units of Nuclear Power Plants with VVER71000 Reactor. Quality Standards of Coolant and Means to ensure them». 2011/220.127.116.11.1.1/46111 (Y025/ 2011//4600002685/00) Stage 29. Мoscow. Rostechnadzor Publ., 2016, 71 p. (in Russian).
- Avdeev E.F., Baklushin R.P., Golba V.S. et al. Accidents and Incidents at Nuclear Power Plants: Study Guide. Edited by Professor S.P. Solovyov. Obninsk. IATE Publ., 1992. 300 p. (in Russian).
- Roschektaev B.M. Water7Chemical Regime of NPPs with VVER71000 and RBMK71000 Reactors: Study Guide. M.: NIYaU MIFI Publ., 2010, 132 p. (in Russian).
- Subbotin V.I., Ivanovsky M.N., Arnoldov M.N. Physicochemical Foundations of the Use of Liquid Metal Coolants. Moscow. Atomizdat Publ., 1970, 295 p. (in Russian).
- Klinshpont E.R., Roshektaev B.M., Milinchuk V.K. Kinetics of Hydrogen Accumulation during Chemical Decomposition of Water in Heterogeneous Compositions. Al’ternativnaya Energetika i Ecologiya. – ISJAEE. 2012, no. 9, pp. 116-120 (in Russian).
- Milinchuk V.K., Belozerov V.I., Ananyeva O.A., Laricheva T.E., Kunitsina T.E. Chemical Decomposition of Water to Hydrogen in Heterogeneous Aluminum Containing Compositions. Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2014, no. 4, pp. 32-40 (in Russian).
- Milinchuk V.K., Klinshpont E.R., Belozerov V.I. Autonomous Hydrogen Generator based on the Chemical Decomposition of Water by Aluminum. Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2015, no. 2, pp. 49-59 (in Russian).
- Shkolnikov E. I., Yakushko S. A., Tarasova S. A. et al. Investigation of the Operation of an Aluminum-Water Hydrogen Microgenerator for Compact Power Sources. Electrokhimicheskaya Energetika. 2008, v. 8, no. 2, pp. 86-91 (in Russian).
- Efimov A.I., Belorukova L.P., Vasilkova I.V., Chechev V.P. Properties of Inorganic Compounds. Leningrad. Khimiya Publ., 1983, 392 p. (in Russian).
- Tarasov B.P., Lototsky M.V. Hydrogen for Energy Production: Problems and Prospects. Al’ternativnaya Energetika i Ecologiya. – ISJAEE. 2006, no. 8, pp. 72-90 (in Russian).
- Dmitriev A.L., Prokhorov N.S. Prospects of Using Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier. Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’. 2003, v. 80, no. 10, pp. 27-29 (in Russian).
- Legasov V.A. Methods of Obtaining Hydrogen by Decomposition of Water. Atomno7 Vodorodnaya Energetika i Tekhnologii. Moscow. Atomizdat Publ., 1978, iss. 1, pp. 37-61 (in Russian).
- Milinchuk V.K., Shilina A.S., Ananyeva O.A., et al. Study of Environmentally Safe and Energy-Saving Ways of Obtaining Hydrogen by Chemical Decomposition of Water. Al’ternativnaya Energetika i Ecologiya. – ISJAEE. 2012, no. 4, pp. 49-54 (in Russian).
- Milinchuk V.K., Belozerov V.I., Shilina V.I. et al. A Study of Hydrogen Generation in Interaction of Aluminum with Aqueous Solutions. Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2013, no. 2, pp. 3947 (in Russian).
- Milinchuk V.K., Roschektaev B.M. Autonomous Hydrogen Generator. Patent for the Invention RU 2510876 C2, 10.04.2014. Application No. 2012115818/05 of 19.04.2012 (in Russian).
- Aminov R.Z., Bayramov A.N. Combining Hydrogen Energy Cycles with Nuclear Power Plants. Moscow. Nauka Publ., 2016, pp. 14-30 (in Russian).
- Sheindlin A.E., Zhuk A.Z. The concept of alumina-hydrogen energy. Rossijsky Khimichesky Zhurnal. 2006, v. L, no. 6, pp. 105-108 (in Russian).
- Milinchuk V.K., Klinshpont E.R., Belozerov V.I. et al. Transformation of the Aluminum Oxide Coatings at the Simulation of the Nuclear Power Engineering Factors. Izvestia vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2016, no. 2, pp. 45-54 (in Russian).
- Salakhova A.A., Suvorov V.A., Firsova A.I. et al. Influence of Boric Acid on the Generation of Hydrogen by Aluminum-Containing Compositions with Chemical Activators. Izvestia vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2018, no. 3, pp. 171-179. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2018.3.15 (in Russian).
Link for citing the article: Askhadullin S.R., Milinchuk V.K. Generation of Hydrogen by Hydroheterogenic Compositions based on Aluminum and Alkaline Metals. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2021, no. 1, pp. 49-59; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2021.1.05 (in Russian).