Simulation of the radiation situation in nuclear power deployment areas
The use of geoinformation and expert simulation systems to assess the environmental effects from operation of nuclear power installations is discussed. The structure and the functions of the ARIA geoinformation and expert simulation software package are described. ARIA features functional capabilities for building and visualizing digital models of the locality, hazardous installations, and recipient facilities, simulating and visualizing the radiation situation, and analyzing the radiation situation in terms of the activity and dose rate levels for recipient facilities of various geometries. The system makes it possible to calculate spatial distributions of the radionuclide specific activity, the dose and the dose rate as defined by the external and internal pathways for the ionizing radiation impacts.
The paper presents the results of using the ARIA software package to calculate the radiation situation with the entry of radionuclides into the surface air layer during normal and emergency operating modes of nuclear power installations. In the former case, the radiation situation was calculated for the Kalinin NPP deployment area. In the latter case, the consequences from a series of short-term emergency releases in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident in Japan in 2011 were assessed.
The contribution of long- and short-lived radionuclides to the formation of the radiation background in the event of an emergency release and during normal NPP operation is discussed. Inhalation dose is the most important factor defining the dose rates for the personnel and the public at the early accident stage. That at the later accident stage, both during an accident and during normal NPP operation, is the dose caused by the radiation from the long-lived radionuclides in the surface soil layer. It has been shown that the individual equivalent dose in the Kalinin NPP deployment area is four orders of magnitude as low as the annual dose threshold value set by the radiation safety standards.
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