Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Current sources based on supercapacitors with β-radioisotopes

3/19/2020 2020 - #01 Physics in nuclear power engineering

Stepanov V.A. Chernov V.A. Parshikov Yu.G. Lebedev V.P. Kharanzhevskiy E.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2020.1.14

UDC: 621.3; 621.039

In asymmetric supercapacitors, electric charges are separated and accumulated during neutron irradiation. The paper deals with current sources with radioactive isotopes (CSRI) based on 100 F supercapacitors made by means of neutron activation of elements introduced into the electrodes of substances (BN or SrO). After neutron irradiation with a dose of up to 400 Gy, the supercapacitors turn into CSRI with a charging rate of up to 7.8 μ V/day. The CSRI charging rate increases in proportion to the activation neutron dose up to 14 kGy. This is due to the production of β-active isotopes as a result of the reactions 14N(n, p)14C and 88Sr(n, γ)89Sr in the supercapacitor electrodes.

An estimate of the radiation-induced charge accumulation rate, taking into account the energy released during β -decay of 14C and 89Sr, excludes the known charge separation mechanisms in a condensed medium due to the ionization and production of secondary electrons, electron-hole pair generation, etc. The electric charge separation and accumulation in CSRI occurs as a result of nonequilibrium thermoelectric phenomena in the near-electrode nano-regions. Nuclear reactions in nanoscale regions produce «temperature gradients» up to 105 K/nm. This leads to the «evaporation» of up to 1013 electrons from nanocrystallites at times of ~ 10–11 s.

References

  1. Stepanov V.A.,Chernov V.A., Dynamic instability in supercapacitors after neutron irradiation. Proc. of the All(Russian Sci. Conf. «Technologies and Materials for Extreme Conditions (Forecasting Research and Innovative Development)». Moscow. MTsAI RAS Publ., 2019, pp. 115-119. ISBN 978-5-4465-2435-8/С. DOI: 10.26103/MZ.2019.94.80.015 (in Russian).
  2. Chernov V.A., Stepanov V.A., Sigeikin G.I., Prudnikov N.V., Eremin V.P. Miniature Nano- Structured Current Sources Based on Direct Conversion of Nuclear Energy. Rossiyskiy Khimicheskiy Zhurnal. 2016, v. LX, no. 3, pp. 20-25 (in Russian).
  3. Stepanov V.A., Chernov V.A., Parshikov Y.G., Lebedev V.P., Kharanzhevskiy Y.V. Radiation- Induced Separation and Accumulation of Electric Charge in Supercapacitors. Izvestiya Vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2018, no. 1, pp. 146-153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/ npe.2018.1.14 (in Russian).
  4. Stepanov Vladimir A., Chernov Vladimir A., Parshikov Yury G., Lebedev Victor P., Kharanzhevskiy Yevgeny V. Radiation-Induced Separation and Accumulation of Electric Charge in Supercapacitors. Nuclear Energy and Technology. 2018, v. 4(3), pp. 163-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3897/nucet.4.30780.
  5. Stepanov V.A., Lebedev V.P., Parshikov Y.G., Kharanzhevskiy Y.V., Chernov V.A. Electrodynamic Effects in Asymmetric Supercapacitors after Neutron Irradiation. Proc. of the All(Russian Sci. Conf. «Technologies and Materials for Extreme Conditions (Forecasting Research and Innovative Development)». Moscow. MTsAI RAS Publ., 2018, pp. 100-105, ISBN 978-5-4465-2049-7 (in Russian).
  6. Stepanov V.A., Lebedev V.P., Parshikov Y.G., Kharanzhevskiy Y.V., Chernov V.A. Models of current sources based on asymmetric supercapacitors with β-active electrodes. Proc. of the All(Russian Sci. Conf. «Technologies and Materials for Extreme Conditions (Forecasting Research and Innovative Development)». Moscow. MTsAI RAS Publ., 2019, pp. 110-114. ISBN 978-5-4465-2435-8/С. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26103/MZ.2019.36.71.014 (in Russian).
  7. IAEA. Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data (EXFOR). Available at: https://www-nds.iaea.org/exfor/ (accessed Dec 10, 2019).
  8. Stepanov V.A. Radiation-Stimulated Diffusion in Solids. Technical Physics. 1998, v. 43, iss. 8, pp. 938-942. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/1.1259104.
  9. Uchaikin V.V., Ambrozevich A.S., Sibatov.R.T., Ambrozevich S.A., Morozova E.V. Memory and Nonlinear Transport Effects in Charging-Discharging of Supercapacitor. Zhurnal Technicheskoy Fiziki. 2016, v. 1, no. 2, pp. 250-259. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/ S1063784216020249 (in Russian).
  10. Bertrand N., Sabatier J., Briat O., Vinassa J.M. Fractional Non-Linear Modelling of Ultracapacitors. J. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 2010, v. 15, no. 5, pp. 13271337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnsns.2009.05.066.

current sources with radioactive isotopes (CSRI) supercapacitor neutron irradiation radiation-induced electric charge