Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Critical notes: history, state, problems and prospects of nuclear science and technology

6/24/2019 2019 - #02 Current issues in nuclear energy

Murogov V.M.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2019.2.05

UDC: 621.039.009

This paper attempts to analyze, based on a simplified phenomenological approach, the methodology of the evolution histories of nuclear science and technology, as well as the contradictions and issues which, if not resolved, make senseless any discussions of scenarios for the full-scale evolution of nuclear power.

The paper analyzes in brief the evolution history of nuclear technologies in the USA and in the USSR. It also considers the present-day status of nuclear power. Two international projects, INPRO and GIF-IV, were initiated in 2000 to look for the way out of the crisis that had occurred in the evolution of nuclear power. INPRO aims to define the evolution strategy for and the requirements to the nuclear power of tomorrow. The GIF-IV project aiming to develop Generation IV reactors for future NPPs focuses on building innovative reactors capable to address the challenges involved in further evolution of nuclear power.

The following issues were considered as the result of the system analysis: further evolution of nuclear power internationally; nuclear nonproliferation; NPP safety; nuclear waste; climate and oxygen burning by NPP operation; education and training of younger generations of nuclear workers.

The critical analysis into the history, status and future evolution of nuclear technologies at the present-day stage shows that the nuclear energy market has monopolized the industry of designing, engineering and building practically only one type of nuclear reactors for NPPs (95% of the NPPs under construction have water-cooled water-moderated reactors) due to which single-skilled personnel are largely trained for the construction and operation of this type of plants. Achieving the full-scale evolution level of nuclear power capable to resolve the socio-economic and ecological issues faced by humankind requires a basically new evolution concept for all domains of nuclear industry.

References

  1. Vernadsky V.I. Collected works. Vol. 1. Мoscow. Nauka Publ., 2013, 514 p. (in Russian).
  2. Vernadsky V.I. Sketches and speeches. Issue 1. Petersburg, 1922 (in Russian).
  3. Andrianov A.A., et al. Nuclear technologies: history, state, prospects. Moscow. NIYaU MIFI Publ.,2012, 180 p. (in Russian).
  4. Methodology for the Assessment of Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles Report of Phase 1B (first part) of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Available at: https://www.iaea.org/publications/7202/methodology-for-the-assessment-of-innovative-nuclear-reactors-and-fuel-cycles-report-of-phase-1b-first-part-of-the-international-project-on-innovative-nuclear-reactors-and-fuel-cycles-inpro (accessed Feb 04, 2019).
  5. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Available at: https://www.gen-4.org/gif/upload/docs/application/pdf/2013-09/genivroadmap2002.pdf (accessed Feb 04, 2019).
  6. Reactor GFR. Available at: http://leg.co.ua/arhiv/generaciya/reaktory-razmnozhiteli-na-bystryh-neytronah-76.html (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).
  7. Reactor VHTR Available at: https://studopedia.su/16_20508_visokotemperaturniy-reaktorVHTR.html (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).
  8. Reactor SCWR. Available at: https://docplayer.ru/40919080-Reaktor-ohlazhdaemyy-vodoy-sverhkriticheskogo-davleniya-vver-skd-osnovnoy-pretendent-v-super-vver.html (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).
  9. Reactor LFR. Available at: https://tnenergy.livejournal.com/87320.html (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).
  10. Reactor MSR. Available at: http://www.atomic-energy.ru/video/28796 (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).
  11. Murogov Victor. The History of Nuclear Science and Technology. Theses of Simplified Analysis. Available at: www.atominfo.ru/ 2018/ (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).
  12. Comparative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycles from the nuclear proliferation standpoint: illustrative material for the lecture course. Ed. by V. Murogov. Moscow. NRNU MEPhI Publ., 2014, 236 p. (in Russian).
  13. Culture оf nuclear nonproliferation: multiple-author monograph. Ed. by V. Murogov. Moscow. NRNU MEPhI, 2014, 280 p. (in Russian).
  14. Boldyrev V.M. Renewables, organic fuel and eco-friendly nuclear power. The report at the X International scientific and technical conference «Safety, Efficiency and Economy of Nuclear Power». Moscow. May 25-27, 2016 (in Russian).
  15. IAEA meeting considers future of nuclear. World Nuclear News, July 2018.
  16. Salvatores M. et al. How much can nuclear energy do about global warming. Int. J. Global Energy Issues. 2017, v. 40, no. 1-2.
  17. Kapitsa P.L. Nuclear energy. Article forbidden the Central Committee of the CPSU to the edition. 1955 (in Russian).
  18. Kapitsa P.L. Experiment, Theory, Practice. Мoscow. Nauka Publ., 1981, 430 p. (in Russian).
  19. Bashkirov D. Main problems of a CNFC and way of their overcoming. Available at: www.proatom.ru; 2018 (accessed Feb 04, 2019) (in Russian).

nuclear power nuclear technologies system analysis of nuclear power