Complex radioecological monitoring in the vicinity of radiation hazardous facilities as an integral part of the unified system of state environmental monitoring
The paper presents the main approaches to the formation and development of the system of environmental and radiation monitoring within the historical aspect. The article displays the analysis of national legislative and regulatory documents governing the ensuring of radiation safety of the environment in the areas affected by radiationhazardous facilities, and provides the principles of organizing state environmental and radiation monitoring. The characteristics of the state system of monitoring the radiation situation as an integral part of the Unified system of state environmental monitoring are given. The hierarchical structure of the unified state automated system of monitoring of radiation situation on the territories of the Russian Federation (USASMRS) is presented. The areas of competence and principles for the formation of departmental radiation monitoring systems (Rosgidromet, Rosleskhoz, Ministry of Agriculture, Rospotrebnadzor) have been defined. The procedure for organizing a network of radioecological monitoring, goals, objectives, observable objects and parameters is described. It is noted that the modern approach to assessing the impact of radiationhazardous facilities is based on a joint analysis of the radiation impact, both on humans and on the surrounding natural environment. The systems of radioecological monitoring provide an assessment not only of shortterm changes in the content of radionuclides in individual components of ecosystems, but also allow identifying longterm trends in the overall radiation situation. The monitoring results are the basis for the development of emergency response in case of emergencies at radiationhazardous facilities.
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