Analysis of VVER-1000 nuclear fuel cycle based on remix fuel against proliferation of fissile materials
At the present time, one of the strategic objectives of ROSATOM is the global expansion of the VVER technological platform, which is focused on strengthening the position of the Russian Federation in the global market of nuclear technologies, through the growth in the supply of products and services throughout the life cycle of NPP. As a responsible vendor, ROSATOM, in addition to the reactor technologies themselves, provides services focused on the delivery of unirradiated nuclear fuel, return of the spent fuel, and the possibility of recycling fissile materials in the form of recycled fuels [1, 2].
The lack of nuclear materials enrichment and reprocessing technologies in the newcomer countries results in the need for fresh and spent nuclear fuel transportation. Therefore considerable efforts are required to ensure non-proliferation of nuclear fissile materials [3 – 5].
The present paper assesses the security of fissile materials in the VVER-1000 nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) based on REMIX fuel against unauthorized proliferation depending on recycling number. It is shown that the involvement of regenerated uranium in the form of the REMIX fuel, and therefore the 236U isotope, significantly increases the proportion of the 238Pu isotope in the plutonium isotopic vector, which prevents its diversion for non-peaceful purposes.
Additionally, uranium resource savings were estimated taking into account the involvement of REMIX-fuel in the VVER-1000 nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) by means of the IAEA MESSAGE energy planning software. Estimates have shown that the joint involvement of regenerated urani
- Public annual report «The results of the activities of the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom for 2016.» Available at: http://www.rosatom.ru (accessed Nov. 1, 2018) (in Russian).
- Rosatom will process recycled uranium for France nuclear power plants/ Available at: https://www.tenex.ru/media/media/d5200d8045a4b4588873bbcd91e6c9bf (accessed Nov. 1, 2018) (in Russian).
- International Atomic Energy Agency, Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NW-T-1.24, IAEA, Vienna (2013).
- Williams A.D., Mohagheghi A.H., Cohn B., Osborn D.M., Jones K.A., DeMenno M., Kalinina E., Thomas M.A., Parks E.R., Parks M. and Jeantete B.A. System Theoretic Frameworks for Mitigating Risk Complexity in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. United States: N. P., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172⁄1395642.
- Connolly K.J., and Pope R.B. A Historical Review of the Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL, SR-2016⁄261, Rev. 1, 2016.
- Dolgov A.B. Prospective directions for the development of nuclear fuel for Russian and foreign NPPs. Available at: http://www.atomic-energy.ru/news/2017/05/23/76040 (accessed Nov. 1, 2018) (in Russian).
- Fedorov Yu., Kryukov O., Khaperskaya A. Multiple Recycle of Remix Fuel Based on Reprocessed Uranium and Plutonium Mixture in Thermal Reactors. Available at: https://www-pub.iaea.org/iaeameetings/cn226p/Session6/ID106Fedorov.pdf (accessed Nov. 1, 2018) (in Russian).
- Kang J., Von Hippel F., U-232 and the Proliferation-Resistance of U-233. Spent Fuel Science & Global Security, 2011, v. 9, pp. 1-32.
- Kryuchkov E.F., Glebov V.B., Kushnarev M.S., Apse V.A., Shmelev А.N. Denaturing of Highly Enriched Uranium with 232U; Protection Against Uncontrolled Proliferation. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2008, v. 50, no. 2-6, pp. 643-646.
- Kessler G. Plutonium Denaturing by 238Pu. Nuc. Sci. and Eng., 2007, v. 155, pp. 53-72.
- US Department of Energy. Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE Managed High Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. October. 2014.
- Development of a Methodology for Assessing Prospective Fuel Cycles of Nuclear Power from the Point of View of Protection Against Unauthorized Distribution of Nuclear Materials, Under the State Contract No. H.4b.126.96.36.199.1098. Mar. 03, 2010 (in Russian).
- Alekseev P., Bobrov E., Chibinyaev A., Teplov P., and Dudnikov A. Multiple Recycle of REMIX Fuel at VVER1000 Operation in Closed Fuel Cycle. ISSN 1063 7788, Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2015, v. 78, no. 11, pp. 1264-1273.
- Teplov P.S., Alekseev P.N., Bobrov E.A. and Chibinyaev A.V. Physical and economical aspects of Pu multiple recycling on the basis of REMIX reprocessing technology in thermal reactors. EPJ Nuclear Sci. Technol., 2016, v. 41, no. 2.
- SCALE: A Comprehensive Modeling and Simulation Suite for Nuclear Safety Analysis and Design. ORNL/TM-2005⁄39, Ver. 6.1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Radiation Safety Information Computational Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as CCC-785, 2011.
- Devolpi A. Proliferation, Plutonium and Policy. Pergamon Press, New York, 1979.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (Implementation of INFCIRC/225/Revision 5), IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 27-G, IAEA, Vienna, 2018.
- Lyman E., Kuperman A. A reevaluation of physical protection standards for irradiated heu fuel. Proc. of the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Bariloche, Argentina, November 3-8, 2002, pp. 2-10.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE: A User’s Guide, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-T-5.2, IAEA, Vienna, 2016.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Experience in Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE: Country Case Studies. IAEA-TECDOC-1837, IAEA, Vienna, 2018.