Numerical simulation in dosimetry problems of nuclear medicine and radiobiology
UDC: 614.876; 539.1.037; 519.245
Currently available computational capabilities (multi-core PCs, supercomputers, radiation transport codes) allowing solving radiation transport problems typically offer the possibility to preset periodical structures, for instance, nuclear reactor core cells. This possibility opens the way to the precision (voxel) domain modeling in the problems of nuclear medicine and radiobiology. The problem of absorbed dose calculation in the thyroid gland of cattle caused by radiation accidents was examined. The purpose of the study is the determination of coordinated values of critical dose of 131I in thyroid glands of animals resulting in serious dysfunction of the gland with its subsequent destruction. Complex studies were performed for this purpose further specifying parameters of the compartmental model based on the reliable experimental and theoretical data. Modern technologies were applied in the modeling of thyroid gland and surrounding tissues. Monte-Carlo code taking into account contributions of both γ- and β-radiation emitted from the source, as well as of secondary radiation along the whole chains until the complete dissipation of energy was used in the solution of 131I radiation transport equation. The main theoretical result of the study is the obtained conversion factor of 131I activity uniformly distributed over the volume of the thyroid gland to the average dose rate in the gland (Bq → Gy/s). The factor was calculated for animals for the chosen configuration of the subject area and the thyroid gland morphology. The main practical result is the reliable estimation of the lower limit of the absorbed dose of internal 131I radiation in the thyroid gland equal to ~ 300 Gy destructing it within short time.
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