Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Generation IV supercritical water cooled nuclear reactors. Real prospects and research program

11/15/2018 2018 - #04 Current issues in nuclear energy

Kirillov P.L. Bogoslovskaya G.P.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2018.4.01

UDC: 530.517.4

Modern conditions make it possible to get information that being discussed openly by a wide scientific community can outline or even determine the expediency of a particular area of present and future research. On the site http://www.sciencedirect.com you can learn about the topics or areas that most attract researchers from different countries.

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) established in January 2000 has set a goal to improve the new generation of nuclear technologies in the following areas: stability; safety and reliability; economic competitiveness; proliferation resistance and physical protection.

The purpose of this publication is to prepare a discussion of one directions of development of fourth-generation NPPs, which already have a large reserve in thermal power engineering in various countries. The number of annual publications on this topic is the largest among other similar topics dedicated to nuclear power plants of the fourth generation.

Based on operating experience of existing nuclear power plant with water as a coolant, it should be assumed that the tendency of building water-cooled nuclear power plants will continue in the next 30 to 50 years. At this stage the task of developing other types of reactors will be only a demonstration of their capabilities and applicability for future power engineering and the needs of society.

The project of supercritical water-cooled reactor is based on the operating experience of VVER, PWR, BWR reactors (more than 14,000 reactor-years); many years of operating experience accumulated in the fossil thermal power plants (more than 400 units, 20,000 block-years using supercritical water steam (25 MPa, 540°C) and super-supercritical (35 – 37 MPa, 620 – 700°C). In Russia more than 140 supercritical pressure units are operating now.

Knowledge accumulated over the last 10 years in the world allows: to clarify the previously developed concept; to develop a plan for specific priority researches; to compile a design specification for small-power reactor VVER SKP-30 (30 MW th.).

The scope of problems that are to be solved to substantiate a VVER-SCP reactor and commence designing of an experimental reactor with a thermal capacity of 30 MW is the same as that in developing any type of reactor: physics of reactor core; material related matters (primarily concerned with the reactor pressure vessel, fuel, and fuel rod claddings); thermal hydraulics in rod bundle in the near- and supercritical areas; water chemistry at super critical pressure; corrosion of materials should be carried out both in static conditions and in water flows under radiation conditions; development of safety systems

The absence of an approved program with appropriate funding in Russia for a long time and the maintenance of such a state for next two or three years will lead to the fact that Russia will hopelessly lag behind in the development of SCWR technology.


  1. Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors Generation III+ Nuclear Reactors – World Nuclear Association. Available at: www.world-nuclear.org (accessed Apr 10, 2018).
  2. Technology Roadmap Up Data for Generation IV. Nuclear Energy Systems. OECD. 2014. Available at: http://www.gif_tru2014.pdf (accessed Apr 10, 2018).
  3. Pioro I., Duffey R.B., Kirillov P.L., Pioro R., Zvorykin A., and Machrafi R. Current Status and Future Developments in Nuclear-Power Industry of the World . Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science (in publication).
  4. Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand. A Joint Report by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. NEA No. 7301. OECD 2016
  5. Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors. 1st Edition. Editor Igor Pioro. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy. 2016. 940 p.
  6. Available at: https://www.gen-4.org/gif/jcms/c_40679/technology-system-scwr (accessed Apr 10, 2018).
  7. Kirillov P.L. Water cooled VVER SKD reactor (preliminary development). Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2013, no. 1, pp. 5-14 (in Russian).
  8. Baranaev Y.D., Glebov A.P., Kirillov P.L., Klushin A.V. Supercritical water cooled reactor VVER-SKD – the main contender in «Super-VVER»: IPPE Preprint -3188. Obninskю FEI Publ., 2010. 19 p. (in Russian).
  9. Pioro I.L., Kirillov P.L. Nuclear power is the basis of future electricity production. Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2015, no. 2, pp. 5-23 (in Russian).
  10. Osnovy sovremennoy energetiki. In 2 volumes. V.1. Modern heat power system. Ed. by prof. A. Truhnij. Moscow. MEI Publ.,2010. 422 p. (in Russian)
  11. Ryzhov S.B., Mohov V.A., Vasil’chenko I.N., Nikitenko M.P., Mahin B.M., Lapin A.V., Chetverikov A.E., Churkin A.N., Anikeev Yu.A., Shmelev S.B. Problems in developments of supercritical water cooled reactor core (VVER-SKP). VANT. Ser.: Obespechenie bezopasnosti AES.Reaktornye ustanovki s VVER(SKD. 2009, iss. 25. pp. 5-14. (in Russian).
  12. Kalyakin S. G., Kirillov P. L., Baranaev Yu. D., Glebov A. P., Bogoslovskaya G. P., Nikitenko M. P., Makhin V. M., and Churkin A. N. Prospects for Development of an Innovative Water Cooled Nuclear Reactor for Supercritical Parameters of Coolant . Teploenergetika. 2014, v. 61, no. 8, pp. 551-557 (in Russian).
  13. Alekseev P., Semchenkov Y., Sedov A., Sidorenko V., Silin V., Mohov V., Nikitenko M., Mahin V., Churkin A. Conceptual Proposals on Reactor VVER(SCW Developed on the Basis of Technologies of VVER and Steam(Turbine Installations at Supercritical Parameters. The VIIth International Symposium on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors ISSCWR-7, 2015. Helsinki, Finland. Report ISSCWR7-№ 2055.
  14. Schulenberg T., Leung L., Oka Y.Review of R&D for supercritical water cooled reactors. Progress in Nuclear Energy. 2014, v. 77, pp. 282-299.
  15. Ryzhov S.B., Kirillov P.L., Mohov V.A., Nikitenko M.P., Chetveкikov A.E., Makhin V.M., Glebov A.P., Churkin A.N. Concept of a Single Circuit RP with Vessel Type SCWR. Report on the Vth Intern. Symp. (ISSCWR-5). Paper P076. Canada, Vancouver, March 13–16, 2011.
  16. Available at: https://www.iaea.org/events/joint-ictp-iaea-workshop-on-physics-and-technology-of-innovative-nuclear-energy-systems (accessed Apr 10, 2018).
  17. Baranaev Y.D., Glebov A.P., Dolgov E.V. Comparative analysis of the physical characteristics of the VVER-SKD reactor with one- and two-way coolant flow patterns: IPPE Prepint-3110. Obninsk, FEI Publ., 2007. 21 p. (in Russian).
  18. Baranaev Y.D., Glebov A.P., Klushin A.V. Prospects for the use of VVER-SKD in a closed fuel cycle. Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika. 2015, no.1., pp. 5-19 (in Russian).
  19. Duffey R.B., Pioro I., Zhou T., Zirn U., Kuran S., Khartabil H. and Naidin M. Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors (SCWRs): Current and Future Concepts – Steam-Cycle Options. Proc. ICONE(16, Orlando, Florida, USA. 2008, Paper #48869, 9 p.
  20. Ruzickova M., Hajek P., Smida S., Vsolak R., Petr J., Kysela J. Supercritical water loop design for corrosion and water chemistry tests under irradiation. Nuclear Engineering and Technology. 2008, v. 40, no. 2, pp. 27-132.
  21. Heat Transfer Behavior and Thermo hydraulics Code Testing for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWRS). IAEA(TECDOC, Ser. No.1746, 2014.
  22. Ryzhov S.B., Kirillov P.L., Mohov V.A., Nikitenko M.P., Chetveкikov A.E., Makhin V.M., Glebov A.P., Churkin A.N. Concept of a Single circuit RP with Vessel Type SCWR: Report on the Vth Intern. Symp. (ISSCWR-5) . Paper P076. Canada, Vancouver, 2011.
  23. Mahin V.M., Churkin A.N. Conceptual proposals for a supercritical water-cooled reactor (review of foreign and Russian developments of SCWR). The Xth International Scentific and Technical Conference «Safety Assurance of NPP with VVER» (MNTK-2017). Report mntk-152. Podolsk, 2017 (in Russian).
  24. Makhin V.M., Mokhov V.A., Berkovich V.Ya., Nikitenko M.P., Churkin A.N., Lapin A.V., Kirillov P.L., Baranaev Yu.D., Glebov A.P. Conceptual proposals on VVER-SCP reactor prototype. VANT. Ser.: Obespechenie besopasnosti AES. 2014, no. 34, pp. 84-92 (in Russian).

GIF-IV program supercritical water reactor (SCWR) prospects for nuclear power development advantages of the VVER-SKD concept problems of developing the VVER-SKD proposals for cooperation number of publications