Safe development of nuclear power technologies in the arctic: prospects and approaches
The demands for nuclear power technologies in the Arctic to solve social and economic problems of the state can only be satisfied if adequate strategies of their safe handling at all stages from design to decommissioning are defined, methodological approaches and mathematical models to predict and minimize adverse environmental impacts of potential emergencies at such facilities are developed, and scientifically-based results yielded within a decision-making support system for the elimination of such emergencies are applied. Special relevance of these requirements is determined by unique features of the Arctic nature and its role in the generation of climatic and hydrological processes in the World Ocean.
The paper presents the main outcomes and the general conclusions based on the analysis of radiological consequences of the wide-scale application of nuclear power industry for the benefit of economical development of the Arctic region. The analysis was performed within the framework of the complex research project «Development of the methodological approaches and mathematical models to access the environmental impact of the possible accidents at the floating nuclear power objects, model calculations of the radiation propagation in the Arctic aquatic territories in case of emergency situations». The increasing demand for the low-power nuclear power sources for the benefit of development of the remote areas, the technological and economical advantages of such sources as well as minimal possible ecological consequences of the hypothetic accidents resulted in the qualitative changes in the attitude towards their usage. We present the estimated scale of usage of the nuclear power and the result of numeric modeling of the activity diffusion in case of emergencies. The conclusion is obtained about the necessity to follow the development strategy of low-power nuclear sources based on the modular concept of their design.
- Low-Power Nuclear Power Plants – a New Line in the Development of Power Systems. Vol. 2. Ed. by akad. RAN A.A. Sarkisov. Moscow: Akadem-Print Publ., 2015, 387 p. (in Russian).
- Sarkisov A.A. Introductory Paper of the Chairman of the Conference Scientific Committee. Low-Power Nuclear Power Plants – a New Line in the Development of Power Systems. Moscow. Nauka Publ., 2011, v. 1, pp. 7-12 (in Russian).
- The History of Nuclear Power of the Soviet Union and Russia: a Collection of Articles, iss. 1-5, iss. 5: History of Low Power Nuclear Power Plants. Ed. by V.A. Sidorenko. Ros. nauch. centr «Kurchatovsky institut». Moscow. IzdAT Publ., 2004, 168 p. (in Russian).
- Ruksha V.V., Golovinskiy S.A., Belkin M.S. Icebreaker support for the largest national Arctic hydrocarbon projects. Arctic: ecology and economy. 2016, no. 4 (24), pp. 109-113 (in Russian).
- Kashka M.M., Smirnov A.A., Golovinskiy S.A., Vorobyev V.M., Ryzhkov A.V., Babich Ye.M. The prospects for development of nuclearpowered icebreaker fleet. Arctic: ecology and economy. 2016, no. 3 (23), pp. 98-107 (in Russian).
- JSC «Afrikantov OKBM». Reactor Facilities for Nuclear Icebreakers and Optimized Floating Blocks. Available at: http://www.okbm.nnov.ru/images/pdf/ritm-200_extended_ru_web.pdf (accessed Feb. 7, 2018) (in Russian).
- Kudinovich I.V. Nuclear Power Facilities of the Prospective Objects of Civilian Marine Machinery and Justification of Their Safety. Dr. tech. sci. diss. St. Petersburg. Krylov State Research Centre Publ., 2016, 292 p. (in Russian).
- Compact Nuclear Batteries for Arctic are to be Constructed for Ministry of Defense by 2023. Available at: http://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/4508435 (accessed Feb. 7, 2018) (in Russian).
- Sarkisov A.A., Smolentsev D.O., Antipov S.V., Bilashenko V.P., Shvedov P.A. Economic Efficiency and Possibilities of Using Megawatt-class Nuclear Power Sources in the Arctic. Arctic: ecology and economy, 2018, no. 1 (29), pp. 4-14 (in Russian).
- Nikitin V.S., Polovinkin V.N., Simonov Yu.A., Ustinov V.S., Kuznetsov V.P., Makarov V.I. Nuclear Energy in the Arctic Region. Arctic: ecology and economy, 2015, no. 4 (20), pp. 86-95 (in Russian).
- Smolentsev D.O. Development of the Arctic energy sector: problems and capabilities of low-power generation. Arctic: ecology and economy, 2012, no. 3 (7), pp. 22-29 (in Russian).
- Possibilities for Employment of Low-power NPPs for Providing Power Supply to Civilian Customers. Result of the Scientific and Technical Board of the Unified Energy System and the Section on the Problems of Reliability and Safety of Large Energy Systems of the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on Electric Power Systems Research. Vesti v Elektroenergetike, 2016, no. 6 (86), pp. 36-44 (in Russian).
- Small Modular Reactors: Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-Term Deployment. [S. l.]: OECD, 2016. (NEA No. 7213).
- Approaches for assessing the economic competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors. Vienna: Intern. Atomic Energy Agency, 2013. – 271 p.
- Kuznetsov V.P., Demin V.F., Makarov V.I., Molchanov A.S., Sozonyuk V.A., Shmelev V.M. Aspects of Liability Insurance of Nuclear Risks from the Low-power Nuclear Power Plants. Izvestiya Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Energetika. 2014, no. 2, pp. 88-95 (in Russian).
- Sarkisov A.A., Vysotskiy V.L., Sivintsev Yu.V., Nikitin V.S. Nuclear Legacy of the Cold War at the Arctic Seabed. Radiological and Technico-Economical Issues of the Sea Radiological Remediation. Moscow. IBRAE RAS Publ., 2015, 699 p. (in Russian).
- Sarkisov A.A., Antipov S.V., Bilashenko V.P., Vysotskiy V.L., Ilyushchenko G.E., Kalantarov V.Ye., Kobrinskiy M.N., Smolentsev D.O., Sotnikov V.A., Khokhlov I.N., Shvedov P.A. Mathematical Model for Evaluating the Technical Condition and Predicting Collapse of Protective Barriers on Flooded Radiation-Hazardous Sites. Atominaya Energiya. 2018, v. 124, iss. 2, pp. 99-104 (in Russian).
- Sivintsev Yu.V., Vakulovskiy S.M., Vasilyev A.P., Vysotskiy V.L., Gubin A.T., Danilyan V.A., Kobzev V.I., Kryshev I.I., Lavkovskiy S.A., Mazokin V.A., Nikitin A.I., Petrov O.I., Pologikh B.G., Skorik Yu.I. Technogenic Radionuclides in the Seas Surrounding Russia. Radioecological Consequences of Radioactive Waste Dumping in the Arctic and Far Eastern Seas («The White Book - 2000»). Moscow. IzdAT Publ., 2005, 624 p. (in Russian).
- Reistad Ole, Шlgaard Povl L. Russian Nuclear Power Plants for Marine. NKS-138 (ISBN 87-7893-200-9), 2006, 92 p.
- Ibrayev R.A., Khabeyev R.N., Ushakov K.V. Eddy-resolving 1/10° Model of the World Ocean. Izvestiya Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Fizika atmosfery i okeana. 2012, v. 48, no. 1, pp. 45-55 (in Russian).
- Rostechnadzor Order of 09.04.2017 No. 351. Available at: https://rg.ru/2017/09/29/rostehnadzor-prikaz351-site-dok.html (accessed Feb. 7, 2018) (in Russian).