Capabilitites of gamma(spectrometry methods for on(line monitoring of nitride SNF pyrochemical reprocessing
The paper reports the first test results for detectors of various types and equipment of gamma-spectrometry channels under external radiation originating from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent mixed nitride uranium-plutonium (MNUP) fuel. Testing was carried out on a solid-state detector with a CdZnTe crystal, a scintillation detector with a LaBr3crystal, and an ionization chamber based on compressed xenon. Simulated external gamma radiation was created by means of a Co-based scattered gamma radiation source. The paper also describes an experimental facility and a measurement technique, and discusses results of the facility testing for the three types of detectors. The solid-state detector was proved to have the best performance. However, achieving the design characteristics of the gamma spectrometry channel requires new solutions for protection and collimation of gamma radiation produced by a real MNUP spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. What is meant here is the influence of the detectors’ geometry on the configuration of a protective collimator which is supposed to be used in real conditions. Thus, if a CXIC based system is used, the calculated mass of the protective collimator is 900 kg, while it is possible to use less massive protection for the other detectors. In addition, the factor of the presence of neutron radiation in reprocessing process can be taken into account when manufacturing neutron shielding for detectors based on CdZnTe and LaBr3. It is possible to surround the protective collimator by an inhibitor layer (for example, polyethylene), and inside the collimator, to create a skin from a thermal neutron absorber (for example, based on cadmium).
- Skiba O.V., Kislij V.A., Savochkin U.P, Vavilov U.P. Pyroelectrochemical processes in the fuel cycle of fast reactors. Dimitrovgrad. OAO SSC RIAR Publ., 2012, 348 p. ISBN 978-5-94831-123-4 (in Russian).
- Reilly D., Ensslin N. and Smith H. Jr. Passive Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Materials. Moscow. Binom Publ., 1999, 717 p. (in Russian).
- Akimov Yu.K. Photon methods for gamma detection. Dubna. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Publ., 2014. 323 p. ISBN 978-5-9530-0380-3 (in Russian).
- Bushuev A.V., Petrova E.V., Kozhin А.F. Practical gamma spectrometry. Мoscow. MEPhI Publ., 2006, 124 p. (in Russian).
- Akimov Yu.K., Ignatiev O.V., Kalinin A.I., Kushniruk V.F. Semiconductor detectors in experimental physics. Moscow. Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989 (in Russian).
- Levenets V.V., Omelnik A.P., Schur А.А., Kutniy V.Е., Rybka A.V. Use of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors produced by NSC KIPT for gamma and alpha measurements. Available at: http://www.lsrm.ru/ppsr/2005/tz20.htm (accessed Feb 02, 2018) (in Russian).
- Rybka A.V., Davydov L.N., Shlyakhov I.N. Gamma-radiation dosimetry with semiconductor CdTe and CdZnTe detectors. Nucl. Instr. and Meth., 1994, v. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 147-156.
- Levenets V.V., Omelnik A.P., Schur А.А. Gamma and alpha spectrometry by semiconductor detectors based on CdTe (CdZnTe) produced by NSC KIPT. Available at: http://www.kinr.kiev.ua/npae_kyiv2006/proc/levenets.pdf (accessed Feb 02, 2018) (in Russian).
- Medvedev M.N. Scintillation detectors. Moscow. Atomizdat Publ., 1977, 137 p. (in Russian).
- Tsirlin Yu.A., Daich A.R., Radyvanyuk А.М. Scintillation detection units. Moscow. Atomizdat.Publ., 1978, 124 p. (in Russian).
- Van Loef E.V.D., Dorenbos P., Van Eijk C.W.E., Kramer K.W., Gudel H.U. Scintiilation properties of LaBr3 : Ce3 +crystals: fast, efficient and high-energy-resolution scintillators. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Phys. Res., 2002, v. A 486, р. 254.
- Shah K.S., Glodo J., Klugerman M., Moses W.W., Derenzo S.E., and Weber M. J. LaBr 3: Ce Scintillators for Gamma Ray Spectroscopy. University of California, 2002.
- Ulin S.Е., Dmitrenko V.V., Grachev V.M. Cylindrical ionization chamber with a shield grid pressurized by xenon up to 50 atm. Pribory i tekhnika eksperimenta. 1995, no. 4, p. 46 (in Russian).
- Dmitrenko V.V., Chernysheva I.V., Gratchev V.M. The progress in developing of large volume high pressure xenone gamma ray spectrometers. Nara : ICDL 99, 1999.
- Ulin S.Е. Condensed4xenon gamma spectrometers (Development, signature study and use). Мoscow. MEPhI Publ., 1999, 98 p. (in Russian).
- Bovin V.P., Viculov I.V., Panov M.A. Current state and prospective development of gas-filled proportional X-ray detectors for radiometric assay. VANT. Ser.: Radiatsionnaya tekhnika, 1992, iss. 1, p. 39 (in Russian).
- Shustov A.E., Vlasik K.F., Grachev V.M. Reconstruction of gamma source spectra registered by xenon gamma detector. Yadernaya fizika i inzhiniring. 2013, v. 4, no. 11-12 (in Russian).
- Dmitrenko V.V., Gratchev V.M., Ulin S.E. High-pressure xenon detectors for gamma-ray spectrometry. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2000, v. 52, no. 3.