Radiation induced separation and accumulation of electric charge in supercapacitors
UDC: 621.3; 621.039
In current source with radioactive isotope (CSRI), the direct conversion of nuclear energy into electrical energy occurs as a result of the separation of electric charges in the decay of radioactive isotopes. Previously it was shown that asymmetric supercapacitors can be CSRI, if after the pulse reactor irradiation and internal induced activity, the accumulation of electric charge occurs to several coulombs. In this paper, the separation and accumulation of electric charge in supercapacitors were studied during neutron irradiation (in situ). A source of neutrons was used for irradiation, which provided the absorbed dose rate up to 0.1 Gy/s. The electrophysical characteristics of cylindrical supercapacitors with organic electrolyte produced by OJSC «ELEKOND» were studied. The symmetrical and asymmetric supercapacitors are compared. It is shown that the accumulation of charge effectively occurs in an asymmetric capacitor, does not depend on the neutron flux, but depend on the neutron dose. The electrical voltage between the electrodes of a symmetrical supercapacitor with a capacity of 100 F under irradiation to an absorbed dose of 50 Gy increases to 1.24 mV. Under irradiation with the same dose, there is a significant increase in the electrical voltage of asymmetric supercapacitors to 1.15 V. After long processes of the radiation-induced electric charge redistribution in the electrolyte and carbon nanoparticles and of formation of the electrical double layer, the electrical voltage between the electrodes and the capacitance increase after the irradiation stop. After irradiation through 1.5·105 s the charge increases to ~ 5·10–3 Cl. The post-radiation increase in the capacitance of asymmetric supercapacitors is ~ 5 mF.
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