Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Application of IRT-T research reactor as the potential solution of graphite radwaste disposal problem

3/23/2018 2018 - #01 Fuel cycle and nuclear waste management

Pavliuk A.O. Kotlyarevsky S.G. Bespala E.V. Bespala Yu.R.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2018.1.09

UDC: 621.039.7

Aspects of handling irradiated graphite during decommissioning uranium-graphite reactors (UGR) of different types were investigated. It was demonstrated that handling reactor graphite is complicated by the presence in the composition of graphite elements of long-lived radionuclides, especially 14C, which may get involved in biological cycles because carbon constitutes one of the main components of biological chains. Practical implementation of the process of selective separation of 14С can significantly reduce potential danger of graphite radioactive wastes due to the reduction of graphite activity as related to the isotope in question, as well as due to the reduction of the leaching rate by separating 14С isotope which is the most weakly bound within the graphite structure. Conclusion was formulated that analytical measurement methodologies and calculation methods allow reliably estimating only the total quantity of 14C accumulated in graphite, the contribution of 14C accumulation channel following 13C(n, γ)14C reaction, as well as the total contribution of 14N(n, p)14C reaction on nitrogen impurities and on nitrogen contained in purge gas. Method was suggested for estimating the values of contributions of different channels of accumulation on nitrogen impurities and on nitrogen contained in purge gas using IRT-T research reactor (Tomsk, Tomsk Region). Parallel irradiation of batches of samples of non-irradiated (fresh) reactor-grade graphite placed in different gaseous media constitutes the basis of the study. Algorithm was suggested for calculating contributions of all channels of 14C accumulation according to results of measurements to be obtained in the proposed studies. Recommendations were formulated on the use of all brands of graphite applied for manufacturing elements of graphite stacks of UGR designed in Russia for determining selectively separated fraction of 14C for all types of graphite radioactive wastes by the companies in the RF which operated (are operating) the UGR. Time of exposure of samples of irradiated graphite in the GEK-4 horizontal experimental channel of the IRT-T reactor which was found to be equal to ~ 10 days was calculated. Methodology was suggested for conducting a series of experiments for determining the values of contributions of 14C accumulation channels in the irradiated reactor graphite. The methodology suggested can be applied for determining fraction of selectively separated 14C in irradiated graphite elements of practically all uranium-graphite nuclear reactors, including foreign-made reactors, under the condition of maintaining carbon dioxide gas atmosphere in one of the irradiated containers.


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irradiated reactor-grade graphite uranium-graphite reactor research reactor IRT-T