Izvestia Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zawedeniy. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Development of the technique for determination the rate of oxidation of structural steels in heavy liquid metal coolants

11/28/2017 2017 - #04 Chemistry, physics and technology of reactor coolants

Ivanov K.D. Niyazov S.-A.S. Lavrova O.V. Salaev S.V. Askhadullin R.Sh.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2017.4.12

UDC: 621.039.534

Consideration is given to the main procedures required to study oxidation processes and to assess corrosion resistance of structural steel in heavy liquid metal coolants under static and dynamic conditions. It has been shown that the main drawback of these techniques consists in unassessability of the process results in the real-time mode. A new procedure was proposed to experimentally determine the steel oxidation rate in the heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) melt; it allows the reaction rate to be measured without the facility depressurization, by means of intermittent injections of a certain known amount of air and its reaction time control. As additional data, the research technique envisaged the use of the results of chemical-spectral analysis of the coolant and slag upon the completion of the experimental fuel cycle, and the results of metallographic analysis of steel samples to determine the thickness of oxide coating and to compare it with the calculated value in terms of the integral oxygen uptake by the system. A design of the test facility was proposed to implement this technique. The facility is equipped with an oxygen thermo-dynamic activity (OTDA) sensor designed by the researches of SSC RF-IPPE. The developed sensors were certified by the State Committee for the Russian Federation for Standardization and Metrology (Certificate RU. C.31.002 A No.15464); they are registered in the State Register of Measuring Instruments (No.25282 - 03) certified to be used in the Russian Federation.For oxygen saturation of the HLMC are used gas-phase method and solid-phase oxides. It is shown that it is preferred that the gas-phase method, which is recommended as the primary for later use.


  1. Balandin Yu.F., Markov V.G. Structural Materials for the Facilities with Liquid Metal Coolants. Leningrad: Sudpromgiz Publ., 1961, 207 p. (in Russian).
  2. Gromov B.F., Shmatko B.A. Oxidation Potential of Lead and Bismuth Melts. Izvesyiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 1997, no. 6, pp. 14-18 (in Russian).
  3. Handbook on Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Alloy and Lead Properties, Materials Compatibility, Thermal-Hydraulics and Technologies, ISBN 978-92-64-99002-9, OECD 2007.
  4. Alekseyev V.V., Orlova E.A. Estimation of Suspended Corrosion Products Transfer and Distribution in the Nuclear Reactor Primary Circuit. Proc. of the Conference «Thermophysics-2011». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2011, p. 194 (in Russian).
  5. Lipetsky B.L., Krupin A.V., Opara B.K., Rakoch A.G. Nonoxidation Heating of Rare Metals and Alloys in Vacuum. Moscow. Metallurgiya Publ., 1985, 182 p. (in Russian).
  6. Zhuk N.P. The Course in the Theory of Corrosion and Protection of Metals. Moscow. Metallurgiya Publ., 1976, 473 p. (in Russian).
  7. Kofstadt P. High4Temperature Oxidation of Metals. Transl. from Engl. Moscow. Mir Publ., 1969 (in Russian).
  8. Evans U.R. Corrosion and Oxidation of Metals. Transl. from Engl. Moscow. Mashgiz Publ.,
  9. 885 p. (in Russian).
  10. Kubashevsky O., Hopkins B. Oxidation of Metals and Alloys. Transl. from Engl. Moscow. Mashgiz Publ., 1955, 311 p. (in Russian).
  11. Martinelli L. Materials and Corrosion, 2011, v. 62, p. 531.
  12. Rusanov A.E., Troyanov V.M, Skvortsov N.S, Levin O.E, Litvinov V.V. Complex of Corrosion Material Science Test Facilities and IRMIT Installations of the SSC RF – IPPE: Status, Prospects for Development. Proc. of the Conference «HLMC-2003». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2003, p. 71 (in Russian).
  13. Mulier G. Status on Liquid Metal Corrosion, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Protection Research at FZK and in Collaboration with Partners. Proc. of the Conference «Heavy Liquid Metal Coolants in Nuclear Technologies (HLMC-2008)». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2008, p. 20.
  14. Molokanov O.A, Lavrova O.V, Gaev D.S, Sergeev I.N. Study of the Composition and Microstructure of Passivation Films Based on Fe3O4. Proc. of the Conference «Heat Mass Transfer and Properties of Liquid Metals – 2002». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2002, v. 1, p. 173 (in Russian).
  15. Chernov M.E, Martynov P.N, Gulevsky V.A. Development of Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor of the Capsular Type for Monitoring and Control of the Heavy Coolant State. Proc. of the Conference «Heavy Liquid Metal Coolants in Nuclear Technologies (HLMC-2003)». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2003, p. 85 (in Russian).
  16. Kulikov I.S Thermodynamics of Oxides. Handbook. Moscow. Metallurgiya Publ., 1986, 342 p. (in Russian).
  17. Askhadullin R.Sh., Martynov P.N, Sysoev Yu.M. Oxygen Thermodynamic Activity Control in Lead and Lead-Bismuth Coolants by the Oxides Dissolution Method. Proc. of the Conference «Heavy Liquid Metal Coolants in Nuclear Technologies (HLMC-2003)». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2003, p. 82 (in Russian).
  18. Ivanov K.D. Lavrova O.V., Salayev S.V. The Use of the Developed Technique for Estimation of Metal Components Diffusion Yield from Steels to Study Corrosion Resistance of These Steels in Heavy Coolants. Book of Abstracts of the Conference «Thermo-Hydraulic Safety Aspects of NPP’s with Fast Reactors». Obninsk. SSC RF-IPPE Publ., 2005, p. 117 (in Russian).

mass transfer coolant lead lead-bismuth structural steel coolant technology steel oxidation oxide film oxygen oxygen activity sensor oxidation kinetics