Plutonium in the locations of local sources and it’s involvement into global circulation
The paper seeks to compare volumetric activities of 239+240Pu and 238Pu isotopes in the atmospheric surface layer in the locations of various local sources of radioactive pollution and to characterize them from the ratio of isotopes of 238Pu to 239+240Pu. Based on these data and results of special studies of the activity of these isotopes in the radiation from the remote object areas, to assess the global man-made background of the plutonium isotopes in near-ground atmosphere. Survey targets are the region of a nuclear power plant with Kursk as an example, the territory polluted as a result of the Chernobyl accident, for example Bryansk, the location of the radioactive material reprocessing enterprise PA «Mayak» in Chelyabinsk region, for example Novogorny settlement, and Obninsk as the area of research nuclear reactors. The paper considers the dynamics of volumetric activity in the areas under investigation from 1992 to 2015; the most polluted areas and the areas with the lowest content of plutonium isotopes in the atmospheric surface layer are specified. The reasons of changes in the levels of volumetric activity by years and seasons are established. The ratio of isotopes 238Pu / 239+240Pu is characterized by considering the sources of radioactive contamination, assessed the possibility of using this indicator to identify emission sources. Considered local sources ranked by level of influence on the pollution by isotopes of plutonium.
In the period under review the volumetric activity of plutonium isotopes at all sites did not exceed the admissible volumetric activity in the air inhaled by population from Norms of Radiation Safety (NRB-99⁄2009) equal to 2,5·10–3 Bq/m3. The considered sources of radioactive pollution have been characterized from the ratio of 238Pu to 239+240Pu isotopes.
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