Bulk electrolysis of cooling system water of production plants and NPP reactors and its impact on safety
The paper presents a new theoretical model in the mechanism of NPP reactor cooling system pipelines’ corrosion damage based on taking account of the formation of polarized surface layer of water at its interface with a solid body.
As aqueous suspension is generated in the circulation loop containing solid-state nanoparticles of the structural material, which peel off as a result of this material «aging» and when exposed to neutron flux, favorable conditions are provided for implementation of bulk water electrolysis with the formation of «explosive mixture» nanobubbles (hydrogen, oxygen). Due to microscopic accumulation of this mixture in the areas of local near-wall laminar water layer disturbance, microexplosions of the «explosive mixture» occur, which intensify corrosion. Under close consideration of the physico-chemical process at the interface, the water molecules are represented as a «spring pendulum», and their intercollision results in vibrational excitation of hydrogen ions (HI) relative to oxygen ions (OI), that differ greatly in the frequencies, specified by the differences in the mass of these ions.
When solving the OI motion equation in the oscillating field of vibrating HI, it was found that a potential field emerged, that prevented the entry of the «heavy» component (OI) to the oscillation center of the «light» component (HI). Oxygen with its high electron affinity forms the electrons’ surface density, providing the field strength equal to ~ 2.6 MV/cm, which induces water electrolysis on each nanoparticle with the production of gas components (H2, O2). The presence of hydrogen and hydrogen saturation of the structural material with increased alloying elements grains intensifies the process of material peeling with the formation of nanoparticles.
The safety measures should involve the need of diagnostics of the pipes and the presence of «nanopowders» in the water for timely replacement of pipes with the new ones, which is of vital importance for long operational life reactors.
- Bosh S. A review of Nuclear Piping Failures at their use in establishing the reliability of Piping Systems. Service Experience in Fossil and Nuclear Power Plant, ASME 1999(PVP, v. 392, pp. 137-155.
- Gosselin S., Fleming K. Evalutation of Pipe Failure Potential via Degradation Mechanism Assessment. Proceedings of ICONS 5th International Conference of Nuclear Engineering. Poster 2641-1997. 10 p.
- Kulakov A.V., Matveev A.L., Ovchinnikov V.A., Roshchin N.G. Determination of Coolant Leaks Flow Rate under the Humidity Control System during Depressurization of the Reactor Cooling Circuit. Izvestiya RAN. Energetika. 2013, no. 5, pp. 82-85 (in Russian).
- Matveev Ye.L., Kulakov A.V., Zubchenko A.S. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Leak in Pipelines. Tyazhyoloe mashinostroenie. 2015, no. 8, pp.1-8 (in Russian).
- Teslenko M.V. Location of Defects on Heat Exchange Tubes of Steam Generators. Predicting the Number of Plugged Tubes. Tyazhyoloe mashinostroenie. 2012, no. 8, pp. 35-39 (in Russian).
- Bogachev A.B., Galiev R.S. Introduction to Automated Residual Life Monitoring System for the Reactor Equipment and Pipelines at the Rostov NPP, Unit 1. Teploenergetika. 2003, no. 5, pp. 16-18 (in Russian).
- Nigmatulin R.I. Dynamics of Multiphase Media, v.1. Moscow. Nauka Publ., 1987. 464 p. (in Russian).
- Papovyants A.K., Melnikov V.P., Voronin I.A., Grigorov V.V. The Effect of Operating Modes and Physical Characteristics of Slurry Carrying Stream in a Vertical Tube on Near-Wall Particulate Migration (in publishing).
- March N., Tosi M. Atomic Dynamics in Liquids. Moscow. Metallurgiya Publ., 1980. 296 p. (in Russian).
- March N.H., Tosi N.L. Introduction to liquid State Physics. London. World Sci. Publ., 2002, 432 p.
- Nikolai G.J., Pings C.J. Structure of Liquids. Journal of Chemical Physics, 1967, v. 46, no. 4, pp.1401-1411.
- Margulis M.A. Sonoluminescence. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk. 2000, no. 3, pp 263-287 (in Russian).
- Moro R., Rabinovitch R., Xia Ch., Kresin V.V. Electric Dipole Moments of Water Claster from a Beam Deflechion Measurement. Phys.Rev.Lett. 2006, v. 97, pp.123-140.
- Safe Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Reports Series. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 2008, no. 57, 35 p.
- Lenkey G.B., Szavai Sz., Rozsahegyi P., Koves T., Jonas. Sz., Beleznai. R. Determination of Mechanical Properties of Aged Components Using Instrumented Hardness Testing and other Miniature Spesimen Testing Techniques. J. Strength of Materials. Jul 2013, v. 45, no. 4, pp. 433-441.
- Ugarov S.Yu., Lavrentyev N.P., Motin Y.D., Jurmanov V.A., Pyrkov I.V.,Kozhin V.N. Prospects for the application based on the wave optics methods for the detection and fractionation of microparticles in technological media of NPP. Problems and prospects of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear power industry. Abstracts. Sosnovy Bor, 20-22 Sept 2005, рр. 46-47 (in Russian).
- Rantsev-Kartinov V.A. «Waterspout» as a special type of atmospheric aerosol dusty plasma. Proc. 31st Eur. Phys. Soc. conf. on Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fusion (London, UK, 2004), ECA, v. 28G, pр. 4-5.
- Kulakov A.V., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A. New nanotechnology – the Basis of Integrated Development and Defense of the RF Coastal and Water Areas. Economicheskie Strategii. 2014, no. 9, pp. 22-23 (in Russian).
- Available at https://download.e-bookshelf.de/download/0001/1829/05/L-G-0001182905-0002999156.pdf