Features of technology of purification from impurities of high-temperature sodium coolant in a fast reactor for hydrogen production and other innovative applications
When creating large-scale atomic-hydrogen energy the most impotent becomes the decision of questions of questions of technological character, associated with high temperature level in the reactor facility (900°С) and large concentrations of hydrogen on long-lasting resources available: the establishment of technology of sodium coolant at high temperatures and concentration range of hydrogen for a long resources, provide corrosion resistance high-temperature radiation-resistant high-temperature structural materials in the oxygen content in the sodium coolant at the level of 0.1 PPM. The paper considers the issues of technology of purification from impurities high temperature of sodium used as a coolant in high-temperature fast reactor (BN-HT) 600 MW (th), earmarked for the production of hydrogen and other innovative applications. Examines the behavior of impurities in the circuits of BN-HT associated with the intensification of the processes of heat and masstransfer at high temperature (regularity of Arrhenius), with different regimes of operation. Special attention is paid to the purification of sodium in the BN-HT of hydrogen and tritium and corrosion products. Cleaning of sodium from the hydrogen and tritium with the use of vacuumish-tion through the membrane of vanadium or niobium will allow you to create compact, highly efficient effective cleaning systems sodium from the hydrogen. It is shown that the clearance of sodium from tritium concentrations, which are produced by the hydrogen its maximum allowable concentration (3,6 Bq/l according to NRB-99/2009), imposes more stringent requirements for the purification system from the hydrogen permeability coefficient of the cleaning system of the second contour from tritium to exceed 140 kg/s. When performing these conditions for BN-HT foundations of probability mass of tritium, 98%, will be accumulated in a compact purification system sodium loop of the second contour, 0,6% (~ 4⋅104 Bq/s) will be released to the environment, and 1.3% – in the produced product (hydrogen). Intensity of inflow of corrosion products (PC) in the sodium determination is the rate of corrosion of structural materials in high temperature sodium flows a significant amount of corrosion products. The calculations showed that for the first circuit of BN-HT quantity of corrosion products generated in the oxygen concentration in sodium of 1 million–1, more than 900 kg/year, if shell fuel rods made of steel EP-912-VD, and 464 kg/year, with shells made of molybdenum alloy. For the second circuit, the quantity of corrosion products is 263 kg/year for each loop. Given the high temperature experiments which illustrate the high effectiveness of the holding of suspensions of corrosion products on the filters in the low-temperature area proposed to cool the sodium to the required temperature with simultaneous retaining of corrosion products on the surfaces of the mass transfer, including filters. It is shown that at use 30% of capacity for the production of hydrogen with 50% efficiency of BN-HT could produce about 0.6⋅106 m3 of hydrogen per day, enough for a big modern, the refinery crude oil of average quality, and the implementation of other technologies.
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Link for citing the article: Kozlov F.A., Kalyakin S.G., Sorokin A.P., Alekseev V.V., Trufanov A.A., Konovalov M.A., Orlova E.A. Features of technology of purification from impurities of high-temperature sodium coolant in a fast reactor for hydrogen production and other innovative applications. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika. 2016, no. 4, pp. 114-124; DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2016.4.11 (in Russian).