Basic strategies of public protection in a nuclear power plant beyond-design basis accident
In the light of the new international requirements on the emergency preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies, the basics of the strategy of protection of the public in event of beyond design basis accident at a nuclear plant have been reviewed. New international requirements were issued by the IAEA in 2015 taking into account lessons learned from the accident at the NPP Fukushima Daiichi in Japan on 11 March 2011.
The IAEA pays particular attention to the development of safety infrastructure in Member States embarking on a nuclear power programme. In the framework of the national projects of technical cooperation, the IAEA is actively implementing international safety requirements released in the IAEA Safety Standards. Following the IAEA safety standards for these States became mandatory. The key issue of the requirements is a demand to Member State to have a public protection strategy in place before the commissioning the first NPP. The strategy shall be based on the Generic criteria to be used in emergency preparedness and response to protect the people in emergency exposure situation – to prevent severe deterministic effects, and – to limit the risk of stochastic health effects on the reasonably achievable level.
The strategy shall include 1. Classification of facilities and areas according to the degree of potential radiological hazard. 2. Classification of emergency planning zones around the hazardous facility. 3. Classification of the status of a facility in event of an emergency.
The Russian Federation takes an active part in the construction of nuclear power plants in those countries that are just embarking on a nuclear power programme, therefore, new international requirements should be considered in the design and construction of the NPPs abroad. Those requirements should be also considered in training of national personnel for the implementation of nuclear power programme.
- Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements Part 7, Safety Standard Series No. GSR Part 7, Vienna: IAEA, 2015.
- Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Vienna: IAEA, 2002).
- Kutkov V.A., Tkachenko V.V. Radiation protection aspects of accidents at nuclear power plants. Izvestia vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2001, no.2, p. 151 (in Russian).
- The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Report by the IAEA Director General with six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Vienna: IAEA, 2015.
- The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103, Ann ICRP 37(2-4), Elsevier, 2007.
- Criteria for Use in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-2, Vienna: IAEA, 2011.
- Kutkov V., Buglova E., and McKenna T. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria, J. Radiol. Prot. 31 (2011) 237–253.
- McKenna T., Vilar-Welter P., Callen J., Martincic R., Dodd B., and Kutkov V. Tools for placing the radiological health hazard in perspective following a severe emergency at a light water reactor (LWR) or its spent fuel pool, Health Physics, 108 (2015) 15-31.
- Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements Part 3, Safety Standard Series No. GSR Part 3, Vienna: IAEA, 2014.
- Dangerous Quantities of Radioactive Material, Emergency Preparedness and Response Series EPR-D-VALUES, Vienna: IAEA, 2006.
- Kutkov V.A., Tkachenko V.V., Romantsov V.P. Radiation protection of workers in nuclear industry. Tutorial. Moscow. Bauman MVTU Publ. 2011 (in Russian).
- Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, report to the General Assembly (with scientific annexes), volume II, Scientific Annex G. Biological effects at low radiation doses. New York: UN; 2000.
- Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Vienna: IAEA, 2006.
- Ilyin L. Chernobyl: myth and reality. Moscow. Megalopolis Publ., 1995 (in Russian).
- Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, Vienna: IAEA, 2007.
- Actions to Protect the Public in an Emergency due to Severe Conditions at a Light Water Reactor, Emergency Preparedness and Response Series EPR-NPP PUBLIC PROTECTIVE ACTIONS, Vienna: IAEA, 2013.
- McKenna T., Kutkov V., Vilar-Welter P., Dodd B., and Buglova E. Default operational intervention levels (OILs) for severe nuclear power plant or spent fuel pool emergencies. Health Phys. 104 (2013) 459-470.
- INES: The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale User’s Manual. 2008 Edition, Vienna: IAEA, 2009.