Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

The concept of phased mastering of fast reactors technologies and closure of NFC under conditions of uncertainty of future knowledge

5/29/2014 2014 - #01 Fuel cycle and nuclear waste management

Kagramanian V.S. Korobeynikov V.D. Rachkov V.I.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2014.1.14

UDC: 621.039.543.6

In this paper the authors suggest that the nuclear industry consider a new way to solve SNF problems of the present-day nuclear power engineering on the basis of technologies already used in Russia: BN reactors, MOX fuel and SNF hydrometallurgical reprocessing. As our knowledge about the future of nuclear power and the real potential of the technologies proposed for further development are ambiguous, existence of alternative views on the future of nuclear power and divergent “requirements” to FR and CNFC should be be taken as an objective reality and they cannot be rejected a priori. Only the future will show which of the ideologies will turn out to be closer to reality.

As part of the “natural security” ideology instead of deterministic “requirements” to fuel performance indicators of a BR system the authors propose to proceed to a “target indicator” that can be updated as our ideas on the future and the real potential of emerging technologies becomes more precise. Using the term “requirement” means that it must be sufficiently substantiated and can be done a priori. The real situation is that the practical ability to perform most of the requirements of “natural security” has not been demonstrated even on experimental level.

Out of the whole list of “targets” one should select key or priority ones that should be demonstrated in the first place, for example in the field of safety indicators. We suggest considering the possibility of phased reaching a “target indicator”: an experimental industrial installation; head commercial unit; commercial installation of the first generation, second generation commercial plants. Acceptance of the above proposals will allow nuclear science to purposefully develop the next-generation technologies for the future without rejecting a priori the results of the previous programs. And the nuclear industry will be able to explore the BN and MOX-fuel technology potential, which has already been demonstrated, to solve the current problems of modern nuclear power, for example in the field of spent nuclear fuel.


  1. Yadernye energotehnologii novogo pokoleniya na period 2010–2015 godov i na perspektivu do 2020 goda: federal’naya celevaya programma [utv. Postanovleniem Pravitel’stva RF ot 3 fevralya 2010 g. № 50]. [Next Generation Nuclear Technologies – 2020: Federal Target Program] [Approved by the Order of RF Government No 50 of February 3, 2010], (in Russian)
  2. Adamov E.O., Dzhalovyan A.V., Lopatkin A.V. e.a. Konceptual’nye polozheniya strategii razvitiya yadernoj energetiki Rossii v perspektive do 2100 g. [Conceptual Development Strategy of Russian nuclear power in the run up to 2100]. Atomnaya energiya. 2012, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 319–330.
  3. Rachkov V.I. Atomnaya energetika kak vazhnejshij faktor ustojchivogo razvitiya Rossii v XXI v. [Nuclear energy as an important factor for sustainable development of Russia in XXI century]. Energosberezhenie i vodopodgotovka. 2006, no. 6, pp. 2–4.
  4. Rachkov V.I., Tyurin A.V., Usanov V.I., Voshchinin A.P. Effektivnost’ yadernoj energotehnologii: sistemnye kriterii i napravleniya razvitiya [The effectiveness of nuclear power technology. System criteria and directions of development]. Moskow, CNIIATOMINFORM Publ. 2008, 228 p. (in Russian)
  5. Adamov E.O., Ganev I.H. Ekologicheski bezuprechnaya yadernaya energetika [Environmentally friendly nuclear power]. Moskow, NIKIET Publ. 145 p. (in Russian)
  6. Energy Strategy of Russia for the period up to 2030. Approved by the Order of RF Government No 1715-r of November 13, 2009. (in Russian)
  7. Leypunskij A.I. e.a. Raschetnye issledovaniya po fizike energeticheskih reaktorov na bystryh nejtronah. Doklad na Tret’ej zhenevskoj konferencii [Studies in the physics of fast neutron reactors. Proceedings of the Third Geneva Conference]. 1964.
  8. Atomnye stancii Rossii [Russian nuclear power plants]. Moskow, Rosenergoatom Publ. 2011.
  9. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems Based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. IAEA. Vienna, 2012, IAEA-TECDOC-1639.
  10. Kuznecov I.A., Poplavskij V.M. Bezopasnost’ AES s reaktorami na bystryh nejtronah [Security NPP with fast reactors]. Moskow, IzdAt Publ. 2012. – 632 s.
  11. Rachkov V.I., Poplavskij V.M., Tsibulya A.M. e.a. Koncepciya perspektivnogo energobloka s bystrym natrievym reaktorom BN-1200 [Concept of prospective power unit with fast neutron reactor BN-1200]. Atomnaya energiya. 2010, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 201–205.
  12. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology. IAEA. Vienna, 1999, IAEA-TECDOC-1083.
  13. ASTRID – Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration. Presented by A.Vasile (CEA). IAEA Seminar on Fast Reactors, Bariloche, Argentina, 1-5 October 2012. Available at: http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloadable/Meetings/2012/2012-10-01-10-05-WS-NPTD/7.5_Vasile_ASTRID.pdf
  14. Gavrilov P.M., Khaperskaya A.V., Fedorov Yu.S. e.a. Complete Testing of SNF Reprocessing Technology for EDS in the Hot Cells. Proc. 10th Intern. Conf. Global 2011. Rep. 501241.
  15. Dekusar V.M., Egorov A.F., Korobejnikov V.V. e.a. Modelirovanie raboty mezhdunarodnogo yadernogo toplivnogo centra [Simulation of the International Nuclear Fuel Center Operation]. Preprint SSC RF-IPPE-3213, Obninsk, 2012. 14 p. (in Russian)
  16. Ganev I.H., Lopatkin A.V., Orlov V.V. Radiacionnyj balans pri razvitii yadernoj energetiki s BREST-1200 i VVEER-1000 [Radiation Balance in Nuclear Power Growth with BREST-1200 and VVЙR-1000 Reactors]. Atomnaya energiya. 2001, vol. 91, iss. 5, pp. 337–342.
  17. Adamov E.O., Orlov V.V. A radical approach needed for a nuclear future in Russia. Nuclear Engineering International. 1992, vol. 37, no. 454, pp. 42–44.
  18. Annual Energy Outlook 2013 with Projections to 2040. US Energy Information Administration. Available at: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/pdf/0383(2013).pdf (pp.71–72).
  19. The Future of Nuclear Power: A Global and Regional Outlook. H-Holger Rogner, A. McDonald. Available at: http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/Pess/assets/NP_Future_KeynoteRognerMcDonaldFeb09.pdf
  20. Orlov V.V. Kakim dolzhno byt’ vremya udvoeniya bystryh reaktorov? [What should be the doubling time of fast reactors?]. Atomnaya energiya. 1971, vol. 31, iss. 3, pp. 195–197.
  21. Orlov V., Slesarev I., Zaritsky S. e. a. The Theoretical Possibility of Doubling Time Reduction in FR by Using Heterogeneous Configurations of Various Types of Fuel. Proc. on Conf. Fast Reactor Physics, IAEA-SM-24476, vol. 2, Vienna: IAEA, 1980, pp.469–480.
  22. Alekseev P.N., Asmolov V.G., Gagarinskij A.Yu. e.a. O strategii razvitiya yadernoj energetiki Rossii do 2050 g. [Strategy of the development of nuclear energy in Russia until 2050]. Atomnaya energiya. 2011, vol. 111, iss. 4, pp. 183–196.

nuclear fuel cycle modelling light water reactors fast breeder reactors natural uranium optimization Global Nuclear Energy fuel balance