Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya Energetika

The peer-reviewed scientific and technology journal. ISSN: 0204-3327

Thermohydraulical researches NPP (to the 60 anniversary of the first NPP)

5/29/2014 2014 - #01 Current issues in nuclear energy

Rachkov V.I. Efanov A.D. Zhukov A.V. Kalyakin S.G. Sorokin A.P.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/npe.2014.1.03

UDC: 621.039

Designing, construction and successful start-up in laboratory «B» (now SSC RF-IPPE), in Obninsk on June, 27th, 1954 the First NPP became turn from purely military programs to peace use of an atomic energy. Researches of thermo hydraulics of nuclear power plants (NPP) in IPPE have begun in 1950th years in connection with work for a reactor with lead-bismuth coolant and the fast reactors cooled by sodium. Their organizers and supervisors of studies were A.I. Leypunsky and V.I. Subbotin then P.L. Kirillov and A.D. Efanov. The considerable contribution in researches have M.H. Ibragimov, M.N. Ivanovsky, F.A. Kozlov, Yu.I. Orlov, P.A. Ushakov, M.N. Arnoldov, G.P. Bogoslovskaja, V.P. Bobkov, B.N. Gabrianovich, A.V. Zhukov, S.G. Kalaykin, Yu.D. Levchenko, N.I. Loginov, A.A. Lukjanov, P.N. Martynov, A.N. Opanasenko, I.P. Sviridenko, A.P. Sorokin, Yu.S. Yuriev and others.

Now SSC RF-IPPE is one of leaders in State corporation «Rosatom» on thermal physics of NPP. In IPPE there are available complex of the laboratories equipped modern experimental thermal physics base. Fundamental and the applied researches connected with a substantiation various NPP are spent in these laboratories. Fundamental researches are directed on development of the theory and creation of the numerical codes verified on the basis of special experiments for reception of the detailed description of velocity and temperature fields in any units of NPP equipment (reactor core, reactor vessel, steam generators). Mathematical models and numerical methods are generalized for the description and numerical modeling of monophase flows, multiphase and multi-fluid systems. Applied researches and workings out are carried out by detailed studying of physical processes for reactors conditions and directed on search of such designs which provide optimum distributions of velocity and temperature in a reactor core, heat exchangers and steam generators.

Results of researches are presented in monographies, in works of domestic and foreign conferences. Their summary was thermohydrailic substantiation of NPP with the sodium coolant agent (fast reactors BR-10, BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600, BN-800), eutectic alloy lead-bismuth (atomic submarine designs 645 and 705) and alloy sodium-potassium (space NPP – BUK, TOPAZ). For accumulation, storage and the analysis thermo physical data, their estimation, development of recommendations about NPP substantiation, verification of numerical codes was created the Center thermo physical data.

For improvement of economic and ecological characteristics, raising of NPP safety as with water and liquid metal coolant, deeper understanding of the regularity defining thermohydraulic, physical and chemical and mass transfer processes is necessary. It is necessary to carry out new thermohydraulic researches as for creation of NPP new generation, such as BN-1200, CVBR-100, BREST-300, BN-VT, WWER-1200, WWER-TOI WWER-SKD, space NPP with high power, electronuclear and accelerated-drive systems, thermonuclear installations and non-nuclear production engineering.

References

  1. Poplavskij V.M., Efanov A.D., Zhukov A.V., Kalyakin S.G., Sorokin A.P., Yur’ev Yu.S. Teplogidravlicheskie issledovaniya reaktornyh ustanovok s natrievym teplonositelem [Thermohydraulic investigations of reactor facilities with sodium coolant]. Atomnaya energiya. 2010, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 236-241.
  2. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P. eds. Metodicheskie ukazaniya i rekomendacii po teplogidravlicheskomu raschetu aktivnyh zon bystryh reaktorov [Guidelines and recommendations for thermohydraulic calculation of fast reactor cores]. RTM 1604.008-88. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE, 1989. 435 p.
  3. Efanov A.D., Kalyakin S.G., Sorokin A.P. Teplofizicheskie issledovaniya bezopasnosti yadernyh reaktorov novogo pokoleniya [Thermophysical investigation of the safety of nuclear reactors of the new generation]. Teplovye processy v tehnike. 2010, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 518-523.
  4. Sorokin A.P. Teplofizicheskie issledovaniya voprosov bezopasnosti YaEU s reaktorami na bystryh nejtronah [Thermophysical Security Research NPUs with fast reactors]. Teploenergetika. 2007, no. 12, pp. 29-36.
  5. Subbotin V.I., Kascheev V.M., Nomofilov E.V., Yur’ev Yu.S. Reshenie zadach reaktornoj fiziki na EVM [Solving problems of reactor physics on a computer]. Moskow, Atomizdat Publ. 1979.
  6. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P.. Ushakov P.A. e.a. Pokanal’nyj teplogidravlicheskij raschet sborok tvelov yadernyh reaktorov [Channelized thermohydraulic calculation of fuel rod assemblies of nuclear reactors]. Atomnaya energiya. 1981, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 307-311.
  7. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Titov P.A., Ushakov P.A. Analiz gidravlicheskogo soprotivleniya puchkov tvelov bystryh reaktorov [Analysis of the hydraulic resistance of the fast reactor fuel bundles]. Atomnaya energiya. 1986, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 317-321.
  8. Ibragimov M.H., Subbotin V.I., Ushakov P.A. Issledovaniya teplootdachi pri turbulentnom techenii v trubah tyazhelyh zhidkih metallov [Study of heat transfer in turbulent flow in tubes of heavy liquid metal]. Atomnaya energiya. 1960, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 54-56.
  9. Zhukov A.V., Kuzina Yu.A., Sorokin A.P. Sistematicheskie issledovaniya teploobmena v sborkah tvelov i nekotorye zadachi zhidkometallicheskogo ohlazhdeniya [Systematic studies of heat transfer in the fuel assembly and some problems of liquid metal cooling]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2009, no. 4, pp. 95-108.
  10. Efanov A.D., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V., Kuzina Yu.A., Denisova N.A., Sorokin G.A., Fedosova M.A. Baza eksperimental’nyh dannyh po teplogidravlike bystryh reaktorov dlya verifikacii raschetnyh kodov [Experimental database for fast reactor thermal hydraulics for verification of computer codes]. Atomnaya energiya. 2009, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 128-136.
  11. Efanov A.D., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V. Teplogidravlicheskij analiz aktivnoj zony yadernyh reaktorov s zhidkometallicheskim ohlazhdeniem. Chast’ I [Thermohydraulic analysis of the core of nuclear reactors with liquid cooling. Part I]. Teplovye processy v tehnike. 2009, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 127-139.
  12. Efanov A.D., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V. Teplogidravlicheskij analiz aktivnoj zony yadernyh reaktorov s zhidkometallicheskim ohlazhdeniem. Chast’ II [Thermohydraulic analysis of the core of nuclear reactors with liquid cooling. Part II]. Teplovye processy v tehnike. 2009, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 318-331.
  13. Ushakov P.A. Priblizhennoe teplovoe modelirovanie cilindricheskih teplovydelyayushchih elementov. Zhidkie metally [Approximate thermal modeling of cylindrical fuel elements. Liquid metals]. Moskow, Atomizdat Publ. 1967.
  14. Subbotin V.I., Ibragimov M.X., Ushakov P.A., Bobkov V.P., Zhukov A.V., Yur’ev Yu.S. Gidrodinamika i teploobmen v atomnyh energeticheskih ustanovkah (osnovy rascheta) [Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in nuclear power plants (basis of calculation).]. Moskow, Atomizdat Publ. 1975.
  15. Zhukov A.V., Kirillov P.L., Matyuhin N.M., Sorokin A.P. e.a. Teplogidravlicheskij raschet TVS bystryh reaktorov s zhidkometallicheskim ohlazhdeniem. [Thermohydraulic calculation of fuel assemblies in fast reactors with liquid cooling.]. Moskow, Energoatomizdat Publ. 1985.
  16. Bogoslovkaya G.P., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V. LMFR Core and Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Design: Former USSR and Present Russia Approaches. IAEA-TECDOC-1060. Vienna, IAEA, 1999.
  17. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Matyuhin N.M. Mezhkanal’nyj obmen v TVS bystryh reaktorov: teoreticheskie osnovy i fizika processa [Interchannel exchange in fuel assemblies of fast reactors: theoretical foundations and physics of the process]. Moskow, Energoatomizdat Publ. 1989.
  18. Sorokin A.P., Bogoslovskaya G.P., Kirillov P.L., Zhukov A.V., Ushakov P.A., Titov P.A. Eksperimental’nye i raschetnye issledovaniya poperechnogo turbulentnogo perenosa impul’sa i energii v kanalah slozhnoj formy [Experimental and computational studies of turbulent transverse transport of impulse and energy in the channels of complex shape]. Teplofizika vysokih temperatur. 1996, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 903-908.
  19. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Matyuhin N.M. Mezhkanal’nyj obmen v TVS bystryh reaktorov: raschetnye programmy i prakticheskoe prilozhenie [Interchannel exchange in fuel assemblies of fast reactors: settlement programs and practical application]. Moskow, Energoatomizdat Publ. 1991.
  20. Efanov A.D., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V., Bogoslovskaya G.P., Sorokin G.A. Teplogidravlicheskie aspekty glubokogo vygoraniya yadernogo topliva v bystryh reaktorah [Thermohydraulic aspects of nuclear fuel burnup in fast reactors]. Atomnaya energiya. 2003, vol. 95, pp. 186-193.
  21. Sorokin A.P., Bogoslovskaya G.P. Metody teplogidravlicheskih raschetov teplovydelyayushchih sborok aktivnoj zony bystryh reaktorov [Methods of thermohydraulic calculation of fuel assemblies of the core of fast reactors]. Teploenergetika. 1997, no. 3, pp. 21-26.
  22. Kazachkovskij O.D., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V. e.a. Metod sosredotochennyh parametrov v zadache o temperaturnom pole v formoizmenennyh TVS bystryh reaktorov s neadiabaticheskimi granichnymi usloviyami. [Lumped parameters method in the problem of the temperature field in form-changing fuel assemblies of fast reactors with non-adiabatic boundary conditions.]. Preprint SSC RF-IPPE-1972. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE. 1985. (in Russian)
  23. Kazachkovskij O.D., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V., Ushakov P.A., Krivencev V.A., Titov P.A. Stohasticheskie neravnomernosti temperaturnyh polej v formoizmenennyh TVS bystryh reaktorov. [Stochastic unevenness of temperature fields in form-changing fuel assemblies of fast reactors.]. Preprint SSC RF-IPPE-1678. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE. 1985. (in Russian)
  24. Kazachkovskij O.D., Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Matyuhin N.M. Temperaturnye polya v formoizmenennyh TVS bystryh reaktorov [Temperature fields in form-changing fuel assemblies of fast reactors]. Atomnaya energiya. 1988, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 89-97.
  25. Zhukov A.V., Matyuhin N.M., Sorokin A.P. Teplogidravlicheskie harakteristiki model’nyh TVS reaktorov pri chastichnoj blokirovke prohodnogo secheniya (tvely s provolochnymi navivkami) [Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of model FAs reactors in partial blocking the flow cross section (fuel elements with wire windings)]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 1997, no. 5, pp. 65-73.
  26. Kuzina J.A., Sorokin A.P., Zhukov A.V. Numerical simulation of fuel assembly thermohydraulics of reactors with blockages. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid coolant in single/two-phase. – IAEA, TWG-FR/125, Vienna, Austria. 2005, pp. 461-480.
  27. Ushakov P.A., Yur’ev Yu.S., Kolmakov A.P. Polya skorosti, davleniya i temperatury v kassetah tvelov bystryh reaktorov pri blokirovanii prohodnogo secheniya. Teploobmen-IV. [Fields of velocity, pressure and temperature in the fast reactor fuel elements tapes while blocking the flow cross section. Heat transfer-IV.]. Minsk: ITMO AN BSSR Publ. – 1980, vol. 8, pp. 180-191.
  28. Zhukov A.V., Kuzina Yu.A., Sorokin A.P., Leonov V.N., Smirnov V.P., Sila-Novickij A.G. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya teploperedachi v aktivnoj zone reaktora BREST-OD-300 na modelyah so svincovym ohlazhdeniem [Experimental study of heat transfer in the reactor BREST-OD-300 to lead-cooled models]. Teploenergetika. 2002, no. 3, pp. 2–10.
  29. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Efanov A.D., Kuzina Yu.A Temperaturnye rezhimy tvelov korabel’nyh yadernyh ustanovok s zhidkometallicheskim ohlazhdeniem [Temperature regimes of ship fuel elements of nuclear facilities with liquid cooling]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2007, no. 1, pp. 56–68.
  30. Zhukov A.V., Kuzina Yu.A., Sorokin A.P. O nekotoryh podhodah po izucheniyu vliyaniya peremennogo energovydeleniya na teplootdachu i temperaturnye polya tvelov reaktorov. [Some approaches to study the effects of variable energy on the heat transfer and temperature fields of fuel rods reactors.]. Voprosy atomnoj nauki i tehniki. Ser. Fizika yadernyh reaktorov, 2008, iss. 3 Dinamika i bezopasnost’ yadernyh energeti-cheskih ustanovok, pp. 21-29.
  31. Zhukov A.V., Kuzina Yu.A., Sorokin A.P. Analiz benchmark-eksperimenta po gidravlike i teploobmenu v sborke imitatorov tvelov s zhidkometallicheskim ohlazhdeniem [Analysis of the benchmark experiment on heat transfer and hydraulic assembly fuel rod simulators with liquid cooling]. Atomnaya energiya. 2005, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 336-348.
  32. Mitenkov F.M., Golovko V.F., Ushakov P.A., Yur’ev Yu.S. Proektirovanie teploobmennyh apparatov AES [NPP design of heat exchangers]. Moskow, Energoatomizdat Publ. 1988.
  33. Poplavsky V.M., Efanov A.D., Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Yuriev Yu.S. Thermohydraulics of sodium cooled reactors. Report on the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities (FR09), December 7-9, 2009. Kyoto, Japan. 06-28P. 12 p.
  34. Zaryugin D.G., Kalyakin S.G., Opanasenko A.N., Sorokin A.P. Issledovaniya stratifikacii teplonositelya i pul’sacij temperatury v yadernyh energeticheskih ustanovkah [Research stratification and coolant temperature fluctuations in nuclear power facilities]. Teploenergetika. 2013, no. 3, pp. 1-10.
  35. Zaryugin D.G., Leskin S.T., Opanasenko A.N., Sorokin A.P. Raschetno-eksperimental’nye issledovaniya teplogidravlicheskih harakteristik v bake bystrogo reaktora na integral’noj modeli SARH v razlichnyh rezhimah raboty ustanovki [Computational and experimental studies of the thermal and hydraulic characteristics in tank of fast reactor by the integral model of automatic shutdown cooling in various modes]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2013, no. 2, pp. 96-104.
  36. Zhukov A.V., Sorokin A.P., Kuzina Yu.A. Avarijnoe rasholazhivanie bystryh reaktorov estestvennoj konvekciej [Emergency cooling of fast reactors by natural convection]. Teploenergetika. 2013, no. 5, pp. 42-51.
  37. Gabrianovich B.N., Del’nov V.N. Gidrodinamicheskie neravnomernosti teplonositelya na vhode v aktivnuyu zonu yadernogo reaktora, obuslovlennye kollektornym effektom [Hydrodynamic coolant irregularities inlet of the nuclear reactor core due to the effect of the collector]. Atomnaya energiya. 2011, no. 3, pp. 177-180.
  38. Gabrianovich B.N., Del’nov V.N. Gidrodinamika kollektornyh sistem yadernyh energeticheskih ustanovok [Hydrodynamics of collecting systems nuclear power facilities]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2007, no. 1, pp. 113-121.
  39. Grabezhnaya V.A., Grachev N.S., Miheev A.S. Parogenerator BN-600: eksperimental’nye raboty v obosnovanie teplogidravliki parogeneratora. Doklad na rossijsko-francuzskom soveshchanii po tehnologii bystryh reaktorov. [Experimental works for justification of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of steam generator BN-600. Report on the Russian-French meeting on fast reactor technology.], 13-17 may 2013. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE.
  40. Kirillov P.L., Grabezhnaya V.A. O vliyanii sposoba obogreva na kriticheskij teplovoj potok [On the influence of heating method on the critical heat flux]. Atomnaya energiya. 1981, vol. 51, iss. 4 (10), pp. 225-227.
  41. Zenkevich B.A., Peskov O.L., Sapankevich A.P. Krizis teplootdachi v potoke kipyashchej vody v trubah. V kn.: Krizis teploobmena pri kipenii v kanalah [Crisis heat flow in the boiling water in the tubes]. Crisis on boiling heat transfer in the channels. Obninsk: SSC RF-IPPE, 1974, pp. 72-99. (in Russian)
  42. Rekomendacii po raschetu krizisa teplootdachi pri kipenii vody v kruglyh trubah. [Recommendations for calculation of heat transfer crisis during boiling of water in circular tubes.]. Moskow, IVT AN SSSR, 1980. Preprint 1-57. (in Russian)
  43. Zenkevich B.A., Kalinin Yu.A., Remizov O.V., Subbotin V.I. O vliyanii neravnomernogo raspredeleniya teplovogo potoka po dline truby na krizis teplootdachi. [On the influence of the uneven distribution of heat flow along the pipe to heat transfer crisis.].Preprint SSC RF-IPPE-150. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE, 1969. (in Russian)
  44. Sergeev V.V., Gonin A.I. Dispersed Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer in Channels with Spacer Elements. Working Material: Thermo hydraulic Relationships for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors. Report of the Third Research Coordination Meeting for the Coordinated Research Programme on Advanced Water Cooled Reactors Held at IPPE, Obninsk, Russia, October 6–12, 1997. IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1998. pp. 222-228.
  45. Grachev N.S., Ivashkevich A.A., Prohorova V.A., Fetisov M.N. O termicheskoj neravnovesnosti parovodyanogo potoka [About nonequilibrium thermal steam and water flow]. Teplofizika vysokih temperatur. 1974, vol. XII, no. 3, pp. 680-681.
  46. Grachev N.S., Kirillov P.L., Prohorova V.A. Eksperimental’noe issledovanie teploobmena v parogeneriruyushchej trube s vnutrennim orebreniem [Experimental study of heat transfer in the steam generating pipe with internal ribbing]. Teplofizika vysokih temperatur. 1976, vol. XV, no. 6., pp. 1234-1240.
  47. Grabezhnaya V.A., Miheev A.S., Kryukov A.E. Ispytaniya modeli parogeneratora BREST pri rabote na chastichnyh i puskovyh parametrah. Nauchno-tehnicheskij sbornik «Itogi nauchno-tehnicheskoj deyatel’nosti Instituta yadernyh reaktorov i teplofiziki za 2012 god». [Test model steam generator BREST at work on partial and starting parameters. Scientific and technical collection «The results of scientific and technological activities of the Institute of Nuclear and Thermal Physics in 2012»]. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE. 2013, pp. 131-142. (in Russian)
  48. Efanov A.D., Kalyakin S.G., Sorokin A.P. Teplofizicheskie issledovaniya v obosnovanie proektov i bezopasnosti yadernyh reaktorov novogo pokoleniya [Thermophysical investigations to support projects and safety of a new generation of nuclear reactors]. Atomnaya energiya. 2012, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 36-39.
  49. Subbotin V.I., Sorokin D.N., Ovechkin D.M., Kudryavcev A.P. Teploobmen pri kipenii metallov v usloviyah estestvennoj konvekcii [Boiling heat transfer of metals under conditions of natural convection]. Moskow, Nauka Publ. 1969.
  50. Kirillov P.L. Teploobmen zhidkih metallov v kruglyh trubah (odnofaznyj i dvuhfaznyj potoki). Diss. dokt. tekhn. nauk [Heat exchange of liquid metals in circular pipes (single-phase and two-phase flows). Dr. tech. sci. diss.]. Moskow, 1968, 246 p.
  51. Sorokin A.P., Efanov A.D, Ivanov E.F. e.a. Raschetno-eksperimental’nye issledovaniya uslovij ustojchivogo teploobmena pri vozniknovenii kipeniya zhidkogo metalla v rezhime avarijnogo rasholazhivaniya bystrogo reaktora [Calculation and experimental study of the conditions of sustainable heat transfer occurs when the boiling liquid metal in the emergency cooling mode fast reactor]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 1999, no. 2, pp. 59-70.
  52. Sorokin A.P., Efanov A.D., Ivanov E.F. e.a. Teploobmen pri kipenii zhidkogo metalla v rezhime avarijnogo rasholazhivaniya bystrogo reaktora [Heat exchange on boiling liquid metal at emergency cooling mode fast reactor]. Atomnaya energiya. 1999, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 337-342.
  53. Efanov A.D., Sorokin A.P., Ivanov E.F. e.a. Issledovaniya teploobmena i ustojchivosti kipeniya zhidkometallicheskogo teplonositelya v konture estestvennoj cirkulyacii [Investigation of heat transfer and stability of boiling liquid metal coolant circuit of natural circulation]. Teploenergetika. 2003, no. 3, pp. 20-26.
  54. Efanov A.D., Sorokin A.P., Ivanov E.F., Bogoslovskaya G.P., Ivanov V.V., Volkov A.D., Sorokin G.A., Zueva I.R., Fedosova M.A. Teploobmen pri kipenii zhidkogo metalla v sisteme parallel’nyh kanalov v rezhime estestvennoj konvekcii [Heat exchange on boiling liquid metal in the system of parallel channels at the natural convection mode]. Teploenergetika. 2007, no. 3, pp. 43-51.
  55. Sorokin G.A., Ninokata H., Sorokin A.P., Endo H., Ivanov E.F. Experimental and Numerical Study of Liqued Metal Boiling in the System of Parallel Bundles under Natural Circulation Conditions. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology. 2006, vol. 43, no 6, pp. 623-634.
  56. Sorokin G.A., Ninokata H., Endo H. e.a. Eksperimental’noe i raschetnoe modelirovanie teploobmena pri kipenii zhidkogo metalla v sisteme parallel’nyh teplovydelyayushchih sborok v rezhime estestvennoj konvekcii [Experimental and numerical modeling of heat exchange during boiling of liquid metal in system of parallel fuel assemblies at natural convection mode]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2005, no. 4, pp. 92-106.
  57. Portyanoj A.G., Portyanoj G.A., Serdun’ E.N., Sorokin A.P. Razrabotka passivnyh ustrojstv avarijnoj zashchity bystryh reaktorov s natrievym teplonositelem. Sb. dokl. mezhotraslevoj konferencii «Teplofizika-2005». [Development of passive devices of emergency protection of fast reactors with sodium coolant. Proceedings interdisciplinary conference «Thermophysics-2005»]. Nov. 16-18, 2005. Obninsk, SSC RF-IPPE. 2006, 14 p. (in Russian)
  58. Portyanoj A.G., Serdun’ E.N., Sorokin A.P., Egorov V.S., Shkarovskij D.A. Passivnye ustrojstva ostanovki reaktorov: klassifikaciya harakteristik i ocenka stepeni sovershenstva [Passive devices for stopping reactors: classification of of characteristics and evaluation of perfection]. Atomnaya energiya. 1998, vol. 84, no. 5, p. 394-398.
  59. Portyanoj A.G., Serdun’ E.N., Sorokin A.P., Egorov V.S., Mal’cev V.G. Razrabotka i izuchenie harakteristik passivnogo ustrojstva ostanova bystrogo reaktora [Development and study of the characteristics of passive device for stopping fast reactor]. Atomnaya energiya. 1999, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 77-81.
  60. Efanov A.D., Kolmakov A.P., Kulikov B.I., Lozhkin V.V. Pomet’ko R.S., Smirnov A.M. Teplofizicheskie aspekty povysheniya energonapryazhennosti sborok v reaktorah WWER. Sb. tez. i dokl. IV Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tehnicheskoj konferencii «Obespechenie bezopasnosti AES s WWER». [Thermophysical aspects of increasing power density assemblies in a WWER. Proceedings of the IV International Scientific and Technical Conference «Safety Assurance of NPP with WWER».]. Podol’sk, 23-25 may 2005, p. 55. (in Russian)
  61. Bezrukov Yu.A., Astahov V.I., Brantov V.G. e.a. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya i statisticheskij analiz dannyh po krizisu teploobmena v puchkah sterzhnej dlya reaktora WWER [Experimental studies and statistical analysis of the data of crisis of heat exchange in rod bundles WWER]. Teploenergetika. 1976, no. 2, pp. 80-82.
  62. Efanov A.D., Kalyakin S.G., Pomet’ko R.S., Selivanov Yu.F. Perspektivy i puti ispol’zovaniya reshetok – intensifikatorov teploobmena v TVS WWER. Nauchno-tehnicheskaya konferenciya «Yadernoe toplivo novogo pokoleniya dlya AES. Rezul’taty razrabotki, opyt ekspluatacii i napravleniya razvitiya» (NTK-2010). [Perspectives and ways of using lattices – intensifiers of heat exchange in FAs of WWER. Scientific and Technical Conference «Nuclear fuel for a new generation of nuclear power plants. Results of the development, operating experience and development trend» (STC-2010).]. Moskow, OAO «VNIINM», Nov. 17-19, 2010. 10 p. (in Russian)
  63. Asmolov V.G., Blinkov V.N., Melihov O.I., Efanov A.D, Sorokin A.P., Strizhov V.F. Problemy teplomassoperenosa i bezopasnosti v proektah AES novogo pokoleniya. Sb. dokl. na rasshirennom zasedanii NTS Rosatoma: «Orientirovannye fundamental’nye issledovaniya v obespechenie innovacionnyh yadernyh tehnologij». [Heat and mass transfer problems and security projects in a new generation of nuclear power plants. Proceedings at the enlarged meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of Rosatom: «Oriented basic research in the provision of innovative nuclear technology»]. Moskow, 28 sept. 2007. Moskow, FGUP «CNIIATOMINFORM». 2007. pp. 55-78. (in Russian)
  64. Berkovich V.M., Korshunov A.S., Taranov G.S. e.a. Razrabotka i obosnovanie tehnologii udaleniya nekondensiruyushchihsya gazov dlya obespecheniya rabotosposobnosti sistem passivnogo otvoda tepla. [Development and validation of technology removing non-condensable gases to ensure efficiency of passive heat removal systems.]. Atomnaya energiya. 2006, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 13-19.
  65. Remizov O.V., Morozov A.V., Tsyganok A.A., Kalyakin D.S., Berkovich V.M., Peresadko V.G., Taranov G.S. Experimental Study on Novovoronezh NPP-2 Steam Generator Model Condensation Power in the Event of the Beyond Design Basis Accident. Proceedings of 2010 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 10). San Diego, CA USA, June 13-17, 2010. Paper 10101.
  66. Luk’yanov A.A., Zajcev A.A., Popova T.V. e.a. Issledovaniya v obosnovanie vodorodnoj bezopasnosti RU novogo pokoleniya, predtestovyj analiz s ispol’zovaniem koda KUPOL-Meksperimentov na ustanovkah TOSQAN, VTSTRA, PANDA v ramkah proekta ERCOSAM-SAMARA. Nauchno-tehnicheskij sbornik «Itogi nauchno-tehnicheskoj deyatel’nosti Instituta yadernyh reaktorov i teplofiziki za 2011 god». [Studies in support of the hydrogen-safety for reactor facilities of a new generation, using code KUPOL-M for pre-test analysis of experiments at TOSQAN, VTSTRA, PANDA in project ERCOSAM-SAMARA. Scientific and technical collection «The results of scientific and technological activities of the Institute of Nuclear and Thermal Physics in 2011»]. Obninsk, SSC RFIPPE. 2012, pp. 259-288. (in Russian)
  67. Kirillov P.L. Vodoohlazhdaemye reaktory na vode sverhkriticheskih parametrov [Water-cooled reactors at supercritical parameters of water]. Teploenergetika. 2008, no. 5, pp. 2-5.
  68. Pomet’ko R.S., Opanasenko A.N., Shelegov A.S. Teploobmen pri sverhkriticheskih parametrah teplonositelya v puchke sterzhnej [Heat exchange at supercritical parameters of coolant in beam of rods]. Izvestiya vuzov. Yadernaya energetika. 2010, no. 2, pp. 142-150.
  69. Grabezhnaya V.A., Kirillov P.L. Heat Transfer at Supercritical Pressures and Deterioration Boundaries. Eleventh International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-11). Avignon, France. October 2-6, 2005.
  70. Bogoslovskaya G.P., Kirillov P.L., Sorokin A.P. Programma MIF teplogidravliches-kogo rascheta aktivnoj zony reaktora, ohlazhdaemogo vodoj pri sverhkriticheskom davlenii [Program «MIF» for thermal-hydraulic calculations of the reactor core with water-cooling at supercritical pressure]. Teploenergetika. 2009, no. 3, pp. 34-37.

nuclear power plants liquid metal coolants water thermohydraulic velocity temperature reactor core heat-exchange equipments collector hydraulic friction factor heat transfer interchannel exchange crisis of heat transfer coolant stratification safety methods of calculations calculation programs