Innovative nuclear power technology – the basis of large-scale nuclear power engineering
Carbon-free power engineering with its most developed part, nuclear power, is becoming more and more promising in the world power engineering. The Russian WWER-based technological capabilities are sufficient for NPPs construction and export deliveries on the predicted ES-2030 scale. However, their potential for the solution of domestic long-term strategic problems is restricted because of the safety level inconformity to the requirements for large-scale nuclear power engineering, limited natural uranium resources, SNF accumulation, as well as its storage and transportation problems. With the aim of substantially improving the fuel balance in Russia as a whole, conserving valuable resources of fossil fuels, and comprehensively solving the problem of carbon dioxide emissions, it is possible to launch largescale nuclear power engineering by the end of the century. This necessitates prompt transition to the closed NFC along with maintenance of reasonably high development rates of nuclear power engineering over much of the century.
As for the efficiency of nuclear power transfer to the closed NFC, it would be reasonable to primarily use all available fuel resources, such as plutonium and enriched uranium, for accelerated commissioning of self-sufficient fast reactors. Inefficient plutonium combustion as thermal reactor MOX-fuel is unacceptable. The economy of transition to the closed NFC calls for making contributions in the near future to the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management fund by the example of other countries with developed nuclear power engineering. In this context, the solution of the problem related to previously accumulated SNF reprocessing may afford ground for raising an issue of state subsidies.
The basic provisions for the implementation of nuclear power engineering development in Russia up to 2100 are illustrated by the system research results of two scenarios with transition to the closed NFC in launching inherently safe fast reactors fueled only with plutonium or enriched uranium.
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